Welcome to Vellickara.org's Health tips page.The Goal of this page is to provide you the Best health information at your finger tips. May it be helpful for all our visitors.
"He who has health has hope, and he who has hope has everything."

     Benefits of Honey And Cinnamon
     10 Biggest Brain Damaging Habits
     Rheumatoid Arthritis
     Heart Attack
     Preparing Yourself To Quit Smoking
     Breast Self Examination
     Eye Care
     Drinking Hot Water After Meals
     10 pregnancy signs
     Ear care
     Do you know about your kidneys ?
     Pregnancy & Asthma
     How Much Sleep Do We Need?
     Kidney Stone
     Vitamin Chart
     Importance of having Breakfast
     Insect Bites and Stings


     Acidity Anemia Appetite Arthritis Athlete’s foot
     Age spots Backaches Bad breath Baldness Breast-feeding
     Burns Canker Sores Cholesterol Colitis Common Cold
     Constipation Cough Dandruff Dehydration Depression
     Diarrhea Dry skin Ear Infection Eye Care Food poisoning
     Gastritis Hair Care Hair Removal Hangovers Headache
     Heartburn Hemorrhoids Hernia Hypertension Indigestion
     Insomnia Itching Leg Pains Liver Care Malaria
     Menopause Menstruation Mumps Diabetes Obesity
     Parasites Peptic ulcers Pregnancy Prickly heat Psoriasis
     Rheumatism Ringworm Scars Sinusitis Skin allergies
     Smoking Snoring Sprain Sterility Stress
     Stretch Marks Sunburn Toothache Thyroid TeethWhitening
     Varicose Warts Weakness Wrinkles White skin

Benefits of Honey And Cinnamon

  • It is found that a mixture of Honey and Cinnamon cures most diseases.
  • Honey is produced in most of the countries of the world.
  • Ayurvedic, as well as Yunani medicine, have been using honey as a vital medicine for centuries.
  • Scientists of today also accept honey as a Ram Ban (very effective) medicine for all kinds of diseases.
  • Honey can be used without any side effects for all kinds of diseases.
  • Today's science says that, even though honey is sweet, if taken in the right dosage as a medicine, it will not harm diabetic patients.
  • A famous magazine named Weekly World News published in Canada dated 17 January, 95 has given a list of diseases that can be cured by Honey and Cinnamon as researched by western scientists.
  • Take one part honey to two parts of luke warm water and add a small teaspoon of cinnamon powder. Make a paste and massage it on the itching part of the body slowly.
  • The pain should recede within fifteen minutes in most cases.
  • Arthritis patients can take one cup of hot water with two spoons of honey and one small teaspoon of cinnamon powder every day.
  • If drunk regularly, even chronic arthritis can be cured.
  • In a recent research done at Copenhagen University, it was found that when the doctors treated their patients with a mixture of one tablespoon honey and half a teaspoon of cinnamon powder before breakfast, they found that within a week, out of the 200 people treated, 73 patients were totally relieved of pain within a month. Mostly of these patients could not walk or move around freely, but after the therapy, they started walking with less pain.
  • Those suffering from hair loss or baldness, may apply a paste of hot olive oil, one tablespoon of honey, one teaspoon of cinnamon powder before a bath and keep it for approximately 15 minutes, and then wash the hair.
  • It was found very effective if kept for 5 minutes as well.
  • Take two tablespoons of cinnamon powder and one teaspoon of honey in a glass of luke warm water and drink it. It destroys the germs of the bladder.
  • Make a paste of one teaspoon of cinnamon powder and five teaspoons of honey, and apply on the aching tooth. This may be done 3 times a day (daily) till such time, that the tooth has stopped aching.
  • Two tablespoons of honey and three teaspoons of cinnamon powder mixed in 16 ounces of tea, when given to a cholesterol patient, reduces the level of cholesterol in the blood by 10% within 2 hours.
  • As mentioned for arthritic patients - If taken 3 times a day, it lowers the cholesterol level.
  • As per the information received in a Medical Journal, pure honey taken with food daily relieves complaints of cholesterol.
  • Those suffering from common or severe colds should take one tablespoon of luke warm honey with 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon powder daily for 3 days.
  • This process will cure most chronic cough, cold and clear the sinuses.
  • Yunani and Ayurvedic have been using honey for years in medicine to strengthen the semen of men.
  • If impotent men regularly take two tablespoons of honey before sleeping, their problem will be solved.
  • In China, Japan and the Far East, women who do not conceive, and to strengthen the uterus, have been taking cinnamon powder for centuries.
  • Women who cannot conceive may take a pinch of cinnamon powder in half a teaspoon of honey, and apply it on the gums frequently throughout the day, so that it slowly mixes with the saliva and enters the body.
  • A couple in Maryland (USA) had no children for 14 years and had left hope of having a child of their own. When told about this process, both husband and wife started taking honey and cinnamon as stated above, The wife conceived after a few months and had twins at full term.
  • Honey taken with cinnamon powder cures stomach ache and also clears stomach ulcers from the root.
  • GAS : According to the studies done in India and Japan, it is revealed that honey, if taken with cinnamon powder, relieves gas and pain in the stomach.
  • Make a paste of honey and cinnamon powder. Apply on bread or chapatti instead of jelly and jam, and eat it regularly for breakfast.
  • It reduces the cholesterol in the arteries and saves the patient from the risk of a heart attack.
  • For those who have had an attack in the past, follow this process daily and avoid the risk of another attack.
  • Regular use of the above process relieves loss of breath and strengthens the heartbeat.
  • In America and Canada, various nursing homes have treated patients successfully and have discovered that the arteries and veins lose their flexibility and get clogged. Honey and Cinnamon improves blood flow.
  • Daily use of honey and cinnamon powder strengthens the immune system and protects the body from bacteria and viral attacks.
  • Scientists have found that honey has various vitamins and iron in large amounts.
  • Constant use of honey strengthens the white blood corpuscles to fight bacteria and viral diseases.
  • Cinnamon powder sprinkled on 2 tablespoons of honey taken before food, relieves acidity and digests the heaviest of meals.
  • A scientist in Spain has proved that honey contains a natural ingredient which kills influenza germs and saves the patient from flu.
  • Tea made with honey and cinnamon powder, and when taken regularly, arrests the ravages of old age.
  • Take 4 spoons of honey, 1 spoon of cinnamon powder and 3 cups of water and boil to make like tea.
  • Drink 1/4 cup, 3 to 4 times a day. It keeps the skin fresh and soft and arrests old age.
  • Life span also increases, and you begin to feel younger!
  • Take three tablespoons of honey and one teaspoon of cinnamon powder paste. Apply this paste on the pimples before sleeping and wash it the next morning with warm water. If done daily for two weeks, it removes pimples from the root.
  • Eczema, ringworm and all types of skin infections are cured by applying honey and cinnamon powder in equal parts on the affected parts.
  • Every morning, on an empty stomach, half an hour before breakfast, and again at night before sleeping, drink honey and cinnamon powder boiled in one cup water.
  • If taken regularly it reduces the weight of even the most obese person.
  • Also drinking of this mixture regularly does not allow the fat to accumulate in the body, even though the person may eat a high calorie diet.
  • Recent research in Japan and Australia has revealed that advanced cancer of the stomach and bones have been cured successfully.
  • Patients suffering from these kinds of cancer should daily take one tablespoon of honey with one teaspoon of cinnamon powder for one month, 3 times a day and continue with the Oncologist’s treatment. No harm lost!
  • Recent studies have shown that the sugar content of honey is more helpful than detrimental to one’s body strength.
  • Senior citizens who take honey and cinnamon power in equal parts are more alert and flexible.
  • Dr. Milton, who has carried out extensive research on this subject, says that, half a tablespoon of honey taken in a glass of water and sprinkled with cinnamon powder taken daily after brushing, and again in the afternoon around 3.00 p.m. when the vitality of the body starts decreasing, increases the vitality of the body within a week.
BAD BREATH (People of South America)
  • The first thing in the morning they gargle with one teaspoon of honey and cinnamon powder mixed in hot water. so their breath stays fresh throughout the day.
  • Honey and Cinnamon powder taken in equal parts daily, restores hearing.

Breast Self Examination

Why do a Breast Self Examination?
Breast self examination has been universally accepted by the experts as a very simple, significant and effective method of early detection of Breast cancer. As with all other types of cancer early detection and a high index of suspicion are the keys to combating the menace of cancer.
When to do a Breast Self Examination?
  • Breast Self Examination is done monthly.
  • The time is 7-10 days from the expected start of the first day of your next period.
  • It is to be done on the same day even when you are not menstruating.
How to Do it?
Use the left hand for the right breast and right and for the left. Apply firm pressure and make small circles as you go back or forth (up or down, circular or spoke style) in a pattern covering all the breast area including the nipple.
  • Stand in front of a mirror and look at each breast separately. Note the size, shape, colour, contour and direction of your breasts and nipples. Has there been any change in size? Has any nipple become turned in or is there any discharge or any change in the texture of the skin?
  • Raise your arms over your head and look at your breasts, as you turn slowly from side to side. Any swellling or puckering of the skin?
  • Lean forward and examine each breast for change in outline or dimpling of the skin.
  • Now, lying down, using the pads of your three middle fingertips feel for any lumps or bumpy areas.
  • Extend the examination to the breast tissue in the underarm. Keep moving your hand across the nipple till you feel you have felt all parts of the breast.
  • Feel for lumps under and along the top of the collar bone. Change your hand and repeat BSE on the opposite breast.
What are the warning signs of Breast cancer?
  • Lump or thickening (breast, underarm)
  • Dimpling or puckering of the skin. · Bloody or spontaneous discharge from nipple.
  • A sore on the breast that does not heal.
  • Unusual pain Itch or rash, especially in nipple area.
  • Retracted nipple(s).
A note of caution is waranted here. Only 1 out of 10 of any breast lumps that are found to merit investigation for cancer may prove malignant. Therefore presence of a breast lump should not press panic buttons at the outset.

10 Biggest Brain Damaging Habits

  1. No Breakfast
    People who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood sugar level. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the brain causing brain degeneration.
  2. Overeating
    It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in mental power.
  3. Smoking
    It causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.
  4. High Sugar consumption
    Too much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may interfere with brain development.
  5. Air Pollution
    The brain is the largest oxygen consumer in our body. Inhaling polluted air decreases the supply of oxygen to the brain, bringing about a decrease in brain efficiency
  6. Sleep Deprivation
    Sleep allows our brain to rest. Long term deprivation from sleep will accelerate the death of brain cells.
  7. Head covered while sleeping
    Sleeping with the head covered increases the concentration of carbon dioxide and decrease concentration of oxygen that may lead to brain damaging effect
  8. Working your brain during illness
    Working hard or studying with sickness may lead to a decrease in effectiveness of the brain as well as damage the brain.
  9. Lacking in stimulating thoughts
    Thinking is the best way to train our brain, lacking in brain stimulation thoughts may cause brain shrinkage.
  10. Talking Rarely
    Intellectual conversations will promote the efficiency of the brain.

Heart Attack

Let's say it's 6.15pm and you're driving home (alone of course) after an unusually hard day on the job. You're really tired, and frustrated……
Suddenly you start experiencing severe pain in your chest that starts to radiate out into your arm and up into your jaw. You are only five miles from the hospital nearest your home. Unfortunately you don't know if you'll be able to make it that far
You have been trained in cpr, but the guy that conducted the course did not tell you how to perform it on yourself !!!
How to survive a heart attack when alone?
since many people are alone when they suffer a heart attack, without help, the person whose heart is beating improperly and who begins to feel faint, has only about 10 seconds left before losing conscious.
Do not panic, but start coughing repeatedly and very vigorously. a deep breath should be taken before each cough, the cough must be deep and prolonged, as when producing sputum from deep inside the chest. a breath and a cough must be repeated about every two seconds without let-up until help arrives, or until the heart is felt to be beating normally again.deep breaths get oxygen into the lungs and coughing movements squeeze the heart and keep the blood circulating. The squeezing pressure on the heart also helps it regain normal rhythm. In this way, heart attack victims can get to a hospital.
Tell as many other people as possible about this.
It could save their lives !!! Don't ever think that you are not prone to heart attack as your age is less than 25 or 30. Nowadays due to the change in the Life style, heartattack is found among people of all age groups.
Be a friend and please send this article to as many friends as possible

Drinking Hot Water After Meals

This is a very good article. Not only about the hot water after your meal, but about heart attacks. The Chinese and Japanese drink hot tea with their meals, not cold water, maybe it is time we adopt their drinking habit while eating.

For those who like to drink cold water, this article is applicable to you. It is nice to have a cup of cold drink after a meal. However, the cold water will solidify the oily stuff that you have just consumed. It will slow down the digestion. Once this "sludge" reacts with the acid, it will break down and be absorbed by the intestine faster than the solid food. It will line the intestine . Very soon, this will turn into fats and lead to cancer . It is best to drink hot soup or hot water/tea after a meal.

A serious note about heart attacks - You should know that not every heart attack symptom is going to be the left arm hurting. Be aware of intense pain in the jaw line.

You may never have the first chest pain during the course of a heart attack. Nausea and intense sweating are also common symptoms. 60% of people who have a heart attack while they are asleep do not wake up. Pain in the jaw can wake you from a sound sleep. Let's be careful and be aware. The more we know, the better chance we could survive.

Eye Care "20-20-20" Important

This info' is sure to help PC users very much.
During a recent visit to an optician, one of my friends was told of an exercise for the eyes by a specialist doctor in the US that he termed as 20-20-20 ." It is apt for all of us, who spend long hours at our desks, looking at the computer screen. I Thought I'd share it with you. 20-20-20

  1. After every 20 minutes of looking into the computer screen, turn your head and try to look at any object placed at least 20 feet away. This changes the focal length of your eyes, a must-do for the tired eyes.
  2. Try and blink your eyes for 20 times in succession, to moisten
  3. Time permitting of course, one should walk 20 paces after every 20 minutes of sitting in one particular posture. Helps blood circulation for the entire body.
Circulate among your friends if you care for them and their eyes. They say that your eyes r mirror of your soul, so do take care of them, they are priceless................

Ear Care

  1. Have your ears examined at least once every year by your physician, audiologist, or any hearing specialist.
  2. The ear is normally a self-cleaning mechanism. Wax acts in a protective manner, catching particles that may land in the ear. Fine hairs inside the ear canal constantly move wax and sloughed skin out of the canal. Wax and skin can build up inside the ear canal. If the canal is not clean, the eardrum can become completely blocked, greatly reducing hearing and eventually cause permanent damage.

    One cause of excessive wax buildup is the use of cotton swabs. A cotton swab is larger than the ear canal. Sometimes, when you use a cotton swab to clean your ear, you can push wax deeper into the ear canal and partially or completely block it. Your doctor or hearing specialist should remove your excess wax. Do not try and remove ear wax with cotton swabs, hair pins, or other hard objects. You can damage your ear canal or eardrum.

    To maintain a clean and healthy ear canal, use an eye dropper to place two or three drops of pure apple cider vinegar in your ears, two to three times a week. You can also flush out the ear canal using warm water with a rubber syringe. Be very careful in attempting to do this. You do not want to aim the stream from the syringe directly toward your eardrum.
  3. If you have itching inside your ear canal, use an eye dropper to place a few drops of baby oil in your canal once or twice a week to lubricate.
  4. Visit your physician or hearing specialist regularly if you frequently have fluid in your middle ear. Fluid normally drains from the ear via the eustachian tube. If the eustachian tube becomes blocked, fluid can:
    • cause damage to the small bones in the middle ear,
    • cause extreme pain, and
    • possibly rupture the eardrum.
  5. If pus flows from any part of your ear, you probably have some kind of infection and should see a physician immediately. You can lose your hearing if you allow the condition to continue.
  6. Common symptoms associated with hearing impairment are ringing sounds in the ears, a feeling of pressure in the ears, and dizziness. Call your doctor your hearing health care professional to test your hearing if you experience these symptoms, particularly if you've recently began taking a new medication or experienced some kind of head trauma.
  7. Common childhood diseases such as mumps, measles, scarlet fever, whooping cough, or any high fever can leave permanent hearing impairment. Always have your child's hearing tested if he/she has had any of these conditions in addition to regular ear care.
  8. Women who are exposed to German measles, measles, mumps, or any other viral diseases during their pregnancies have a very high risk of giving birth to a baby with serious hearing impairment. Have your baby's hearing tested if you have been exposed to these conditions during your pregnancy, or even if you suspect hearing impairment.

Importance of having Breakfast

Breakfast can help prevent strokes, heart attack and sudden death. Advice on not to skip breakfast!
Healthy living
For those who always skip breakfast, you should stop that habit now! You've heard many times that "Breakfast is the most important meal of the day." Now, recent research confirms that one of the worst practices you can develop may be avoiding breakfast.
Because the frequency of heart attack, sudden death, and stroke peaks between 6: 00a.m. and noon, with the highest incidence being between 8: 00a.m. and 10:00a.m. What mechanism within the body could account for this significant jump in sudden death in the early morning hours?
We may have an Answer.
Platelet, tiny elements in the blood that keep us from bleeding to Death if we get a cut, can clump together inside our arteries due to cholesterol or laque buildup in the artery lining. It is in the morning hours that platelets become the most activated and tend to form these internal blood clots at the greatest frequency.

However, eating even a very light breakfast prevents the morning platelet activation that is associated with heart attacks and strokes. Studies performed at Memorial University in St.Johns, Newfoundland found that eating a light, very low-fat breakfast was critical in modifying the morning platelet activation. Subjects in the study consumed either low-fat or fat-free yogurt, orange juice, fruit, and a source of protein coming from yogurt or fat-free milk. So if you skip breakfast, it's important that you change this practice immediately in light of this research. Develop a simple plan to eat cereal, such as oatmeal or Bran Flakes, along with six ounces of grape juice or orange juice, and perhaps a piece of fruit. This simple plan will keep your platelets from sticking together, keep blood clots from forming, and perhaps head off a potential Heart Attack or stroke. So never ever skip breakfast.

Insect Bites and Stings and Spider Bites

Common bites and stings
Most bites and stings will heal on their own without a visit to a doctor. There are several things you can do to relieve pain and itching and prevent infection from a bite or sting.
Insect or spider bites or stings or contact with caterpillars
  • Move away from the stinging or biting insect. Bees will alert other bees, making them more likely to sting.
  • Remain as calm and quiet as possible. Movement increases the spread of venom in the bloodstream.
  • If you have been stung by a bee and the stinger is still in the skin, remove the stinger.
  • If you have been stung on the arm or leg, lower the limb at the time of the sting to slow the spread of venom. Hours later, if swelling is present, you can elevate the limb to help reduce swelling.
  • After contact with a puss caterpillar, remove broken-off spines by placing cellophane tape or commercial facial peel over the area of the contact and pulling it off.
Relieve pain, itching, and swelling
  • Apply an ice pack to a bite or sting for 15 to 20 minutes once an hour for the first 6 hours. When not using ice, keep a cool, wet cloth on the bite or sting for up to 6 hours. Always keep a cloth between your skin and the ice pack, and press firmly against all the curves of the affected area. Do not apply ice for longer than 15 to 20 minutes at a time, and do not fall asleep with the ice on your skin.
  • Elevate the area of the bite or sting to decrease swelling.
  • Try a nonprescription medicine for the relief of itching, redness, and swelling. Be sure to follow the nonprescription medication precautions.
  • An antihistamine taken by mouth, such as Benadryl or Chlor-Trimeton, may help relieve itching, redness, and swelling. Do not give antihistamines to children younger than 1 year unless directed to do so by your health professional.
  • A spray of local anesthetic containing benzocaine, such as Solarcaine, may help relieve pain. If your skin reacts to the spray, stop using it.
  • Hydrocortisone 1% cream or calamine lotion applied to the skin may help relieve itching and redness. Note: Do not use the cream on children younger than age 2 unless your doctor tells you to. Do not use in the rectal or vaginal area in children younger than age 12 unless your doctor tells you to.
  • After the first 6 hours, if swelling is not present, try applying warmth to the site for comfort.
Prevent a skin infection
  • Wash the area with soap and water.
  • After washing, wipe the area with rubbing alcohol or first-aid antiseptic.
  • Trim fingernails to prevent scratching, which can lead to infection.
  • Do not break any blisters that develop.
  • If a bite becomes irritated, apply an antibiotic ointment, such as bacitracin or polymyxin B sulfate, and cover it with an adhesive bandage. The ointment will keep the bite from sticking to the bandage. Note: Stop using the ointment if the skin under the bandage begins to itch or a rash develops. The ointment may be causing a skin reaction.

10 pregnancy signs

Here are 10 pregnancy signs:
  1. Light Spotting - if you have conceived, spotting can happen when implantation occurs before your menstrual period should begin. Pregnancy bleeding from implantation is pinkish or brownish and not heavy. A normal menstrual flow should begin light, become heavy, then taper off again before ending.
  2. More Frequent Urination - urinating more often is one of the very early signs of pregnancy. Many women experience more frequent urination even before a missed period, usually from about 7-12 days after the temperature rise at ovulation. The changes in hormone levels produced by implantation of the embryo, especially the hormone "human chorionic gonadotropin" (hCG), cause more frequent urination.
  3. Elevated Body Temperature - it is normal to have an increase in body temperature at ovulation. Your basal body temperature staying elevated after ovulation is completed and remaining elevated through when your period should begin can be one of the very early signs of pregnancy.
  4. Missing a Menstrual Period - a missed period is one of the obvious 10 pregnancy signs. However, you can miss a period for other reasons including illness, stress, hormone imbalance and reactions to foods or medications. If your menstrual cycle normally occurs very regularly, missing a period can be a sign.
  5. Fatigue - lack of energy as one of the very early signs of pregnancy may be hard to distinguish from other kinds of exhaustion. Feeling tired is related to the change in hormones in the body, which usually disappears as the body adjusts to the new hormone levels.
  6. Cramping - the uterus can contract often and regularly. Moving around, exercise and orgasm all can trigger uterine cramping in early pregnancy.
  7. Nausea - morning sickness is the name given to feeling nauseated when pregnant. Of the 10 pregnancy signs, only about half of pregnant women experience nasea, and feeling nauseated can happen any time of the day or night.
  8. Tender Nipples and Breasts - one of the very early signs of pregnancy is a feeling of tenderness in the breasts and nipples. The good news is that these feelings of tenderness go away as the body becomes accustomed to the new hormone levels.
  9. Darker Areolas - the area around the nipples becomes darker as early as one week after conception. The bumps on the areolas may look more prominent.
  10. Constipation - you may notice a change in your bowels in early pregnancy. The intestines may relax and function less due to changing hormones and be one of the 10 pregnancy signs.
Once the very early signs of pregnancy are experienced, confirm pregnancy by using one of the better home pregnancy tests. There are major differences in the reliability of the home tests for pregnancy. A blood pregnancy test can be accurate as early as 8 to 10 days after conception, and a urine pregnancy test can be accurate as early as 10 to 14 days following conception. Pregnancy tests are not 100% accurate. If you feel you are pregnant but your pregnancy test result is negative, do the test again in a week or so and see your physician.

Remember to take good care of yourself and your body even before you become pregnant. Give up smoking and alcohol, eat healthy and begin exercising. Those first few weeks and your health are vitally important to help support healthy development of your new baby. Becoming pregnant and enjoying a successful pregnancy is a complex but wonderful experience. Besides knowing the 10 pregnancy signs, learn as much as you can about fertility, pregnancy and your health so your new baby will have the very best beginning to life that is possible.

Pregnancy & Asthma

If you are pregnant and have asthma, you should try to learn all you can about the drugs you are taking to control your asthma. Good asthma control is essential to provide the oxygen your body and the fetus needs. Your doctor will work out the asthma plan best suited to your needs while you are pregnant.

You must also communicate with everyone involved. Make sure your obstetrician knows that you have asthma and what you are doing about it. Also, you must keep the doctor who looks after your asthma informed about your pregnancy and the medications you may be taking. Your doctors will usually be well informed and experienced in treating asthma in pregnant women.

  • As a general rule, your doctor will try to determine the lowest amount of medication required to control your asthma. It is important to keep your asthma well controlled during pregnancy so that you and your baby will be in the best possible condition for the birth.
  • The drugs used for control and relief of asthma symptoms are not tested on pregnant women because of ethical reasons. (In fact, proof of safety during pregnancy is not established for most drugs.) However, limited studies of asthma medications in pregnant animals, and the routine use of such drugs in pregnant women with asthma, suggest the drugs are safe. There is little to suggest an increased risk to the fetus. Therefore, there is wide acceptance by experts that the usual asthma drugs should be used to control asthma symptoms in pregnant women. Maintaining adequate oxygen supply to the fetus is essential. Because some drugs have not been tested in pregnant women does not mean that they are harmful. It means that a medical decision must be made regarding their use during pregnancy, and that the dosage and effects be closely monitored by your doctors.
  • Always ask your doctor about the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines during pregnancy and never change the dosage of your asthma medicines without directions from your doctor. Follow your action plan.
Nice To Know
Interestingly, the fetus protects itself against low oxygen levels by producing a special type of hemoglobin in its red blood cells. (Hemoglobin molecules carry oxygen in the bloodstream. ) This special hemoglobin makes the baby's red blood cells very efficient in receiving oxygen from the mother. In fact, even in women who have moderate to severe chronic asthma, the fetus usually receives enough oxygen for its needs.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

What is rheumatoid arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a relatively common disease of the joints. In rheumatoid arthritis, the membranes or tissues (synovial membranes) lining the joints become inflamed (synovitis). Over time, the inflammation may destroy the joint tissues, leading to disability. Rheumatoid arthritis affects women twice as often as men, and frequently begins between the ages of 40 and 60. There are many types of arthritis (disease of the joints). Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation of the synovial membrane of the joints. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis affects young children. For more information, see the topic Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. Osteoarthritis, a more common type of arthritis, has different symptoms and requires different treatment.
What causes rheumatoid arthritis?
Exactly what triggers rheumatoid arthritis is not known, but it is in part due to abnormal immune system activity. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease, meaning the body's own immune system attacks the joint tissues. An inherited factor in some families (genetic predisposition) may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.
What are the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis?
The main symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints of the hands, wrists, elbows, feet, ankles, knees, or neck. Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects both sides of the body at the same time. In rare but severe cases, rheumatoid arthritis may affect the eyes, lungs, heart, nerves, or blood vessels. See an illustration of the most commonly affected joints.
How is rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed?
There is no single laboratory test that can be used to diagnose rheumatoid arthritis. Health professionals diagnose rheumatoid arthritis by examining your joints and evaluating your symptoms, medical history, and results of several tests.
What are the treatments for rheumatoid arthritis?
Health professionals now recommend early treatment with certain medications that may control rheumatoid arthritis or prevent the disease from getting worse and may reduce the chance that you will suffer permanent disability. Because many of the medications used to treat rheumatoid arthritis have side effects, good communication and regular follow-up with your health professional are very important for successful treatment of the disease. In addition to medications, early treatment includes appropriate exercise and lifestyle changes. Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-lasting disease that can be controlled but not cured. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, maintain function, and prevent permanent disability. While rheumatoid arthritis does not normally shorten a person's life span, it can cause disability, depending on how severe the disease is and whether it responds to treatment.


What is acupuncture?
Acupuncture is a Chinese therapy that has been used for centuries. It is based on the theory that there is energy, called chi or qi, flowing through your body. Chi is thought to flow along energy pathways called meridians. Acupuncturists believe a blocking or imbalance of the flow of chi at any point on a pathway may result in illness. Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners believe acupuncture unblocks and rebalances the flow of chi to restore health.
People often use acupuncture to relieve pain. Western medical researchers who have studied acupuncture believe that it may reduce pain through body chemicals that have calming effects (opioid peptides), or by affecting glands (such as the hypothalamus) that produce substances the body uses.
Traditional Chinese acupuncture usually is done by putting very thin needles into the skin at certain points on the body to produce energy flow along the body's meridians. Other types of acupuncture may use heat, pressure, or mild electrical current to stimulate energy flow along these meridians.
What is acupuncture used for?
People use acupuncture to relieve pain and treat certain health conditions. You can use it by itself or as part of a treatment program. Studies have found promising results for the use of acupuncture in treating nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy and postsurgery pain. Acupuncture also may be useful for:
  • Stroke rehabilitation, which involves relearning skills that a person lost because of brain damage from a stroke.
  • Headache. A recent study shows that adding acupuncture to standard treatment leads to significant, long-lasting relief from chronic headaches, especially migraines.
  • Menstrual cramps.
  • Tennis elbow.
  • Fibromyalgia, or widespread pain and tenderness of muscle and soft tissue.
  • Myofascial pain, which is caused by spasm in the muscles.
  • Osteoarthritis, or the breakdown of the tissue (cartilage) that protects and cushions joints. A recent study found that acupuncture can reduce knee pain and increase movement of the knee in people with osteoarthritis.
  • Low back pain.
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome, or pressure on a nerve in the wrist that results in tingling, numbness, weakness, or pain of the fingers and hand.
  • Asthma, or inflammation in the tubes that carry air to the lungs, resulting in periodic episodes of difficulty breathing, wheezing, chest tightness, and coughing.
  • Dental pain.
  • Reducing labor pain.
Is acupuncture safe?
In general, acupuncture is safe when done by a certified acupuncturist. A state license ensures that the acupuncturist has a certain level of training and follows certain practice guidelines. However, acupuncture is not licensed in a few states.

Complications or adverse events may rarely occur. If the acupuncturist uses nonsterilized needles, there is a risk of infection; however, most acupuncturists today dispose of their needles after one use. Make sure the practitioner you visit uses sterilized or disposable needles. Talk with your doctor if you have other questions about the safety of acupuncture.

Acupuncture may be a valuable treatment for certain health conditions and merits further use and study. Your doctor may recommend it along with conventional medical treatment for many illnesses.

Always tell your doctor if you are using an alternative therapy or if you are thinking about combining an alternative therapy with your conventional medical treatment. It may not be safe to forgo your conventional medical treatment and rely only on an alternative therapy.


What Is Insomnia?
Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which a person experiences poor sleep or has trouble sleeping. Insomnia can involve:
  • Difficulty falling asleep
  • Difficulty staying asleep (that is, waking up many times during the night), without necessarily having had any difficulty falling asleep
  • Waking up too early in the morning
  • Not feeling refreshed after a night's sleep
In any of these cases the person feels tired the next day, or feels as if he or she did not have enough sleep. Poor sleep for any length of time can lead to mood disturbances, lack of motivation, decreased attention span, trouble with concentration, low levels of energy, and increased fatigue.
About one-third of the average person's life is spent sleeping. Healthy sleep is vital to the human body and important for the optimal functioning of the brain and other organs.
There are three types of insomnia:
  • Transient, or mild, insomnia - sleep difficulties that last for a few days; there is little or no evidence of impairment of functioning during the day
  • Short-term, or moderate, insomnia - sleep difficulties that last for less than a month, that mildly affect functioning during the day, together with feelings of irritability and fatigue
  • Chronic, or severe, insomnia - sleep difficulties that last for more than a month, that severely impair functioning during the day, and cause strong feelings of restlessness, irritability, anxiety, and fatigue
Need To Know:
What is the right amount of sleep I should get?
Since everyone has different sleep needs, there is no "correct" amount of sleep. On average, most people need between seven and nine hours of good quality sleep each night in order to feel alert the next day. But some function perfectly well with only four or five hours a night. The key to healthy sleeping seems to be a consistent pattern, rather than the number of hours one sleeps.
Is Insomnia Serious?
Insomnia can have physical and psychological effects. The consequences of insomnia include:
  • Impaired mental functioning. Insomnia can affect concentration and memory, and can affect one's ability to perform daily tasks.
  • Accidents. Insomnia endangers public safety by contributing to traffic and industrial accidents. Various studies have shown that fatigue plays a major role in automobile and machinery accidents. As many as 100,000 automobile accidents, accounting for 1,500 deaths, are caused by sleepiness.
  • Stress and depression. Insomnia increases the activity of the hormones and pathways in the brain that cause stress, and changes in sleeping patterns have been shown to have significant affects on mood. Ongoing insomnia may be a sign of anxiety and depression.
  • LHeart disease. One study reported that people with chronic insomnia had signs of heart and nervous system activity that might put them at risk for heart disease.
  • Headaches. Headaches that occur during the night or early in the morning may be related to a sleep disorder.
  • Economic effects. Insomnia costs the U.S. an estimated $100 billion each year in medical costs and decreased productivity.
Normal Sleep
Sleep is not a simple process. Many different parts of the brain control and influence sleep at different stages. There are two natural daily peak times for sleeping: at night and at mid-day, which in parts of the world is traditional "siesta" time. Here is how the body initiates sleep:
  • As light fades, cells in the retina of the eye send a signal to a cluster of nerve cells located in the hypothalamus, in the center of the brain.
  • These cells in turn send a message to the pineal gland in the brain to produce the hormone melatonin, which causes a drop in body temperature and sleepiness.
  • At the same time, another cluster of nerve cells in the brain is believed to deactivate three major chemical messengers in the body, that keep us alert: histamine, norephinephrine, and serotonin.
There are two distinct phases of sleep:
  • Non-rapid eye movement (Non REM) sleep - The quiet or restful phase of sleep, also referred to as "slow wave sleep"; it is divided into four stages of progressively deepening sleep
  • Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep - The phase of sleep in which the brain is active and dreaming occurs; it is also known as "dream sleep"
When we first go to sleep, the "brain waves" (the electrical activity normally produced in the brain) slow from a frequency of 10 cycles per second that usually occurs while we're awake, to about 6 cycles per second as our alertness decreases and we fall asleep. Then after about an hour, there is a sudden increase in brain wave activity for a few minutes when the electrical activity in the brain speeds up, similar to normal waking. This is REM sleep. During this time if the person is woken up, he will say he was dreaming.

Then the electrical activity of the brain slows down again. This cycle may be repeated several times during one night's sleep. Total REM sleep for the night is about 20% of the total sleep time. So we spend about a fifth of our sleeping time dreaming.

The phases of sleep occur in a repeated cycle of Non REM followed by REM sleep, with each cycle lasting about 90 minutes. The sleep cycle is repeated four to six times a night. It is possible to identify which stage of sleep a person is in by measuring different activities of the brain and body.

Each phase of sleep is important. Research suggests that Non REM sleep may play a role in bolstering the immune system and may also be tied to the rhythms of the digestive system. Experts believe that REM sleep is necessary for long-term emotional well-being and may help bolster memory.
Need To Know: If your insomnia lasts longer than a few weeks and is affecting your mood, relationships, and ability to function well, it is a good idea to see a doctor, therapist, or sleep specialist.
What Are Sleep Disorders?
An estimated 40 million Americans experience some type of sleep disorder, but 95 percent of them go undiagnosed and untreated, simply because they do not realize they have a problem or because they think that nothing can be done for them.
Common sleep disorders include:
  • Insomnia, an inability to sleep or to remain asleep throughout the night
  • Obstructive sleep apnea, in which a person's breathing passages become temporarily blocked during the night; this condition is often marked by excessive snoring
  • Chronic sleep apnea, a neurological condition in which the brain "forgets" to instruct the body to breathe
  • Restless leg syndrome, in which a person has occasional movement and/or uncomfortable sensations in his or her legs, feet, or toes just before they fall asleep
  • Hypersomnia, an increase in sleep by about one-fourth of a person's regular sleep patterns
  • Narcolepsy, in which a person gets sudden attacks throughout the day and night of drowsiness and sleep that cannot be controlled
  • Parasomnias, which are vivid dreams and physical activities that occur during sleep, such as sleepwalking (somnambulism) and episodes of screaming and flailing about (night terrors).
Nice To Know: Chronic sleep deprivation - in which a person sleeps soundly, but just doesn't get enough sleep - is not classified as a sleep disorder, but it contributes greatly to our sleepy society. Experts say most of us need at least one more hour of sleep per night than we get.
Facts about insomnia:
  • Studies estimate that about one-third of the adult population in the world experiences some insomnia each year.
  • Experts estimate that only about 5 percent of people with insomnia seek medical help, and 69 percent never even mention the problem to their doctor.
  • More than 35 million Americans suffer from long-lasting insomnia, with 20 to 30 million others experiencing shorter-term sleeplessness.
  • Insomnia costs the U.S. approximately $100 billion each year in medical costs and decreased productivity.
  • In the U.S., as many as 100,000 automobile accidents and 1,500 deaths from these accidents are caused by sleepiness.· In one study, 40 percent of people with insomnia also had a psychiatric disorder.
  • At least 70 percent of people with depression also experience insomnia.
  • As many as 25 percent of people with anxiety disorders also experience insomnia.
  • Substance abuse - especially alcohol, cocaine, and sedatives - plays a role in an estimated 10 to 15 percent of cases of chronic insomnia.

How Much Sleep Do We Need?

The amount of sleep each person needs depends on many factors, including age. Infants generally require about 16 hours a day, while teenagers need about 9 hours on average. For most adults, 7 to 8 hours a night appears to be the best amount of sleep, although some people may need as few as 5 hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep each day. Women in the first 3 months of pregnancy often need several more hours of sleep than usual. The amount of sleep a person needs also increases if he or she has been deprived of sleep in previous days. Getting too little sleep creates a "sleep debt," which is much like being overdrawn at a bank. Eventually, your body will demand that the debt be repaid. We don't seem to adapt to getting less sleep than we need; while we may get used to a sleep-depriving schedule, our judgment, reaction time, and other functions are still impaired.

People tend to sleep more lightly and for shorter time spans as they get older, although they generally need about the same amount of sleep as they needed in early adulthood. About half of all people over 65 have frequent sleeping problems, such as insomnia, and deep sleep stages in many elderly people often become very short or stop completely. This change may be a normal part of aging, or it may result from medical problems that are common in elderly people and from the medications and other treatments for those problems.

Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day, even during boring activities, you haven't had enough sleep. If you routinely fall asleep within 5 minutes of lying down, you probably have severe sleep deprivation, possibly even a sleep disorder. Microsleeps, or very brief episodes of sleep in an otherwise awake person, are another mark of sleep deprivation. In many cases, people are not aware that they are experiencing microsleeps. The widespread practice of "burning the candle at both ends" in western industrialized societies has created so much sleep deprivation that what is really abnormal sleepiness is now almost the norm.

Many studies make it clear that sleep deprivation is dangerous. Sleep-deprived people who are tested by using a driving simulator or by performing a hand-eye coordination task perform as badly as or worse than those who are intoxicated. Sleep deprivation also magnifies alcohol's effects on the body, so a fatigued person who drinks will become much more impaired than someone who is well-rested. Driver fatigue is responsible for an estimated 100,000 motor vehicle accidents and 1500 deaths each year, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Since drowsiness is the brain's last step before falling asleep, driving while drowsy can - and often does - lead to disaster. Caffeine and other stimulants cannot overcome the effects of severe sleep deprivation. The National Sleep Foundation says that if you have trouble keeping your eyes focused, if you can't stop yawning, or if you can't remember driving the last few miles, you are probably too drowsy to drive safely.

Vitamin Chart

A... BETA-CAROTENE. ..Promotes growth and vitality. Helps the body fight infection and bacteria. Important for the health of the eyes, bones, teeth, hair and skin tissue. Essential in the formation of visual purple, a substance which is necessary for proper night vision. Maintains healthy functioning of the liver and reproductive organs. Promotes healing of broken bones and damaged skin or tissue. Shortens the duration of illnesses. Essential for pregnancy and lactation. Aids the body in combating the effects of environmental pollution.

Alfalfa SproutsCarrotKalePeas Sprouts
AvocadoCayenne PepperKelpPersimminTomato
BananaCelerylettucePineappleVegetable, grn/yelw
BeePollen CherriesMelonsPrunesWheat s-w
BroccoliYellow FruitsPapayaSpinachWheatgrass

B-1... THIAMINE... Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates. For healthy muscle tone and growth. Necessary for consistent growth in children. Helps all kinds of stress. Stabilizes the appetite by improving digestion and assimilation of nutrients. Necessary for fertility and lactation. Preserves the health of the nervous system, muscles and heart. Promotes energy. Can help improve mental attitude and individual learning capacity.

AlfalfaBee PollenGotu Kola (H)OnionWild Rice
Alfalfa SproutsBroccoliGrains S-WParsleySeeds (S-W)
BarleyGarlicLentils (S-W)PrunesVegetables
Beans (S-W)Ginsing (Korean)Nutritional YeastRaisinsWheatgrass

B-2... RIBOFLAVIN.. . Needed in the digestion and metabolism of protein, fats and carbohydrates. Needed for cell respiration. Necessary for the formation of red blood cells and antibodies. Benefits vision, Promotes healthy skin, nails and hair. Aids growth and reproduction. Helps in stress situations.

Alfalfa SproutsBee PollenGarlic Nutritional YeastRosehips (H)
AppleBroccoliGinsing (Sib)NutsSeeds (S-W)
ApricotCashewsGotu Kola (H)OnionSpirulina
AsparagusCherriesGrains (S-W)ParsleySprouts (all)
AvocadoDatesGreens (leafy)PrunesWatercress
BananaFigsKelpWild RiceWheatgrass

B-3... NIACIN... Assists in the metabolism and utilization of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, Promotes a healthy digestive system. Necessary for the health of the skin and tongue. Essential for the body's production of cortisone, thyroxine, insulin and the male and female sex hormones. Necessary for healthy nervous system and brain function. Increases circulation and reduces cholesterol.

Alfalfa SproutsBee PollenGarlicOnionSeeds (S-W)
AlmondsBurdock Root(H)Grains (S-W)ParsleySpirulina
ApricotChamomile (H)KelppeasSprouts (all)
AsparagusCornMushroomsPotatoVegetables (green)
AvocadoDatesNutritional YeastPrunesWheatgrass

B-5... PANTOTHENIC ACID... Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Helps in cell building. Aids in maintaining normal growth. Essential for converting food into energy. Helps the body fight infections and disease. Aids in healing wounds. Helps in the development of the central nervous system. Vital for the proper functioning of the adrenal glands. Necessary for the production of antibodies. Improves the body's ability to handle stress. Protects against cell damage caused by radiation. Increases longevity. Produced in the body by the beneficial bacterial flora in the intestines.

AlfalfaCabbageMushroomsPeasSprouts (all)
Alfalfa SproutsCarrotNutritional YeastPotatoTomato
AlmondsCauliflowerNutsRoyal JellyVegetables (green)
AvocadoGrains (S-W) Oats (S-W)Seeds (S-W)Walnuts
Bee PollenHoney (raw)OnionSoy Beans(S-W)Wheatgerm

B-6... PYRIDOXINE.. . Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Assures proper chemical balance in the blood and body tissues. Promotes healthy skin, teeth, muscles and nerves. Needed for the proper absorption of vitamin B-12. Necessary in the production of antibodies and red blood cells. Important for the metabolism and utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Needed for the balance of sodium and phosphorus. Helps maintain the balance of sodium and potassium which regulates body fluids.

Alfalfa SproutsBell PepperGrains (S-W)OrangesSprouts (all)
AvocadoBuckwheat SprtsGreensPeasVegetables (green)
Bee PollenCantaloupeNutritional YeastRaisinsWheatgerm

B-12... CYANOCOBALAMIN. .. Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Promotes growth. Increases energy. Helps prevent anemia. Forms and regenerates red blood cells. Helps iron function better in the body and helps the placement of vitamin A into body tissues. Essential for the normal functioning of all cells. Maintains a healthy nervous system. Important for healthy bone marrow. Necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Helps improve concentration, memory and balance. Can be produced by the body in the intestines.

AlfalfaCumfrey (H)Grains (S-W)NutsSprouts (all)
Alfalfa SproutsDulseKelpSeeds (S-W)Wheatgerm
Beans (S-W)GarlicLentil SproutsSoybeans(S-W)Wheatgrass
Bee PollenGinsing(Kor/ Sib)Nutritional YeastSpirulinaWhite Oak Bk(H)

B-15... PANGAMIC ACID... Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Extends cell life span. Helps lower blood cholesterol level. Speeds recovery from fatigue. Increases the body's efficiency in using oxygen. Increases immunity to infections, Helpful in stimulating the glandular and nervous system. Essential in the body's metabolism of protein. Protects against the damaging effects of carbon monoxide, and other pollutants. Widely used in Russia and Europe .

Bee PollenGrains (S-W)Nutritional Yeast Brown RiceSprouts (all)
Black Walnut (H)Juniper BerriesNutsSeeds (S-W)Sunflower Seeds
CabbageMarshmallow Root(H)Pumpkin SeedsSesame SeedsWheatgrass
Dandelion Rt(H)

B-17...AMYGDALIN. .. Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Research suggests it may have cancer fighting characteristics.

Apple SeedsCeleryGarlicMung Beans(SW)Seeds ( S-W)
Apricot KernelsChaparral (H)Grains (S-W)Peach KernelsSprouts (all)
Buckwheat (S-W)Flax SeedsMilletPlum KernelsWheatgrass

B Complex... BIOTIN... Essential in the formation of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA. Helps the liver produce lipids (fats) and promotes the conversion of feed into energy. Helps prevent exhaustion. Eases muscle pain. Aids in the utilization of protein, folic acid, pantothonic acid and vitamin B-12. Aids metabolism. Helps prevent baldness. Can be produced by the body in the intestines.

Alfalfa SproutsCornNutritional YeastBrown Rice Strawberries
BananaFruitsNutsSeeds (S-W)Vegetables (green)
Beans (S-W)Ginsing (Sib)OkraSoybeans (S-W)Wheatgerm
Bee PollenGrains (S-W)PeanutsSpirulinaWheatgrass

B Complex... CHOLINE... Necessary in maintaining the functions of the liver and kidneys. Helps control blood pressure and cholesterol build-up. Aids the sending of nerve impulses in the brain that have to do with memory. Sustains healthy nerves. Maintains muscles. Assists in the elimination of poisons and drugs from the system by aiding the live*. Can be produced by the body in the digestive tract. Aids in the prevention of gallstones.

Bean SproutsGinsing (Korean)LegumesPeasSpinach
Bee PollenGrains (S-W)Nutritional YeastPeppermint (H)Wheat (S-W)
CabbageGreens (Leafy)NutsSeed (S-W)Wheatgerm
FruitsLecithinPeanutsSoyvbeans (S-W)Wheatgrass

B Complex...FOLIC ACID... Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Necessary for proper brain function. Essential for mental and emotional health. Improves lactation. Helps prevent anemia. Essential to the formation of red blood cells. Promotes healthy skin. Aids the performance of the live*. Needed for the division of body cells. Aids in protein metabolism. Important for the production of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA. Aids the intestinal tract. Enhances circulation.

Alfalfa SproutsBee PollenCauliflowerGrains (S-W)Spinach
ApricotBeat GreensCitrus FruitsGreens (Leafy)Spirulina
AsparagusBroccoliCumfrey Leaf (H)KelpSprouts (all)
AvocadoBuckwheat SprtsCucumberPeasWheatgerm
Beans (S-W)CantaloupeGinsing (Kor)Soybeans (S-W)Wheatgrass

B Complex...INOSITOL. .. Important for the proper function of the heart, eyes and brain. Regulates cholesterol level. Metabolizes fats and cholesterol, important for nourishing brain cells. Combines with choline to form lecithin. Helps prevent hardening of the arteries and protects the liver, kidneys and heart, Necessary for producing healthy cells in the bone marrow, eye membranes and the intestines. Essential for hair growth and helps prevent baldness.

Alfalfa SproutsCornLima BeansOnionSpirulina
Bee PollenEchinaceaNutritional YeastOrangesSunflower Seeds
CantaloupeGrains (S-W)OatmealPeasWheatgerm
Citrus FruitLecithinOats (S-W)RaisinsWheatgrass

B Complex...PABA- AMINOBENZOIC ACID... Helps maintain natural color of hair. Can be produced by the body. Facilitates the body's production of folic acid. Helps keep the skin healthy. Aids in blood cell formation. Aids in the metabolism of proteins.

Burdock Root (H)Greens (leafy)Molasses (unrefined)Brown RiceWheatgerm
Grains (S-W)Horsetail (H)Nutritional YeastWheatbranWheatgrass

C... ASCORBIC ACID... Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Essential for collagen production in the body. Helps preserve and mend the connective tissues, bones, muscles and blond vessels. Promotes heeling of wounds and burns. Protects the body against infections, viruses and bacterial toxins. Maintains solid bones and teeth. Helps in decreasing blond cholesterol. A natural laxative. Used in the formation of red blood cells. Lowers incidence of blood clots in veins. Protects the brain and spinal cord from damage by free radicals (destructive molecules that can cause damage to the body). Essential in the formation of adrenaline. Helps the body in stress situations. Extends cell life.

Alfalfa sproutsCabbageCucumberOnion Rosehips (H)
Bee PollenCauliflowerGrapefruitParsleySpirulina
BeetsCeleryGreens (Leafy)PeasSprouts (all)
BroccoliChickweed (H)KelpPineappleWatercress
Burdock Root (H)Citrus fruitsLemonPotatoWheatgrass

D... CALCIFEROL.. . Facilitates the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from foods. Bone builder. Aids in producing blood plasma. Regulates mineral metabolism. Stabilizes the nervous system and head action. Produced by the body in response to sunlight. Needed in the formation of certain enzymes. Helps in normal blond clotting.

Alfalfa SproutsCarrotDandelion Rt(H)Lemongrass (H)Seeds (S-W)
AvocadoChickweed (H)GarlicMarshmallow RootSunflower seeds
Bee PollenCumfrey Root(H)Greens (Leafy) MushroomsSunlight

E... TOCOPHEROL.. . Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Essential for reproduction. Increases male and female fertility. Helps restore male potency. Aids lactation. Protects red blood cells. Promotes healing of wounds. Prevents blood clots. Supplies oxygen to the body for more endurance. Aids in the prevention of miscarriages, dull mentality, pessimism and loss of courage. Helps protect the lungs and other tissues from damage by environmental pollutants.

Alfalfa SproutsBee PollenGrains (S-W)OrangesSpirulina
AlmondBroccoliGreens (Leafy)Brown RiceSprouts (all)
AvocadoCarrotKelpRosehips (H)Vegetable Oil
BarleyCornNutsSeeds (S-W)Wheatgerm
Bean SproutsfruitOlive OilSpinachWheatgrass

F... UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS... Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Aids in weight reduction. Provides the body with' fat in a form that is easily metabolized. Encourages healthy hair and skin. Combats heart disease. Aids in preventing cholesterol deposits in the arteries. Lends toward well-being by influencing glandular activity. Helps in blood coagulation. Makes calcium available to the cells. Essential for normal glandular activity, especially of the adrenal glands and the thyroid gland. For healthy nerves.

AlmondsFruitsOlive OilRoot VegetablesSunflower Seeds
Angelica (H)GarlicOrangesSeeds (S-W)Vegetable Oil
Bee PollenLicorice Root (H)PeanutsSpirulinaWheat (S-W)
FennelNutsPecansSprouts (all)Wheatgrass

K... PHYLLOQUINONE. .. Can be formed by natural bacteria in the intestines. Responsible for the maintenance of the blood's clotting system. Aids in the prevention of internal bleeding and hemorrhages. Aids in healing bruises, Vitality and longevity factor, Vital for normal functioning of the liver.

Alfalfa SproutsCayenne PepperGreens (leafy)Oats (S-W)Soybeans (S-W)
Bee PollenCumfrey (H)KalePeasSpinach
CarrotGingerMushroomsRoot VegetablesWheatgerm
Cauliflower RootGrains (S-W)OatmealSafflower OilWheatgrass

P... BIOFLAVONOIDS. .. Degenerates rapidly in the presence of heat. Works together with vitamin C to strengthen capillaries and connective tissues. Helps speed recovery from the common cold. Helps in the treatment of edema and dizziness. Helps prevent bruising. Builds resistance to infections. Enhances the action of vitamin C. Aids in preventing and helping bleeding gums

Citrus FruitBurdock Root(H)GrapefruitLemonParsley
BlackberriesCurrantsJuniper Berries
Buckwheat(S- W)

Preparing Yourself To Quit Smoking!

Quitting smoking isn't easy but millions of people have quit over the past several years. Many more are seriously thinking of quitting due to the fact that they are more aware of the dangers of smoking. Public opinion has also had an impact, as has second hand smoke issues. Check out these tips. They will surely prepare you in your quest to becoming smoke-free!· List all the reasons you want to stop. Every night before going to bed, repeat one of the reasons 10 times.
  • Decide positively that you want to stop. Try to avoid negative thoughts about how difficult it might be.
  • Develop strong personal reasons to stop in addition to your health and obligations to others. For example, think of all the time you waste taking cigarette breaks, rushing out to buy a pack, hunting for a light etc., or of all the money you'll save.
  • Begin to condition yourself physically: start a modest exercise program; drink more fluids; get plenty of rest; avoid fatigue.
  • Have realistic expectations -- stopping isn't easy, but it's not impossible either. More than 3 million Americans stop smoking every year.
  • Understand that withdrawal symptoms are temporary and are healthy signs that the body is repairing itself from its long exposure to nicotine. Within 24 hours of abrupt smoking cessation, withdrawal symptoms may appear as the body begins its healing process.
  • Relapses occur in the first week or two after stopping, when withdrawal symptoms are strongest and your body is still using all your personal resources. Willpower, family, friends, and any tips that work for you will help you get through this critical period successfully.
  • Bet a friend you can stop on your target date. Put your cigarette money aside every day, and forfeit it if you smoke. (But if you do smoke, don't give up; simply strengthen your resolve and try again.
  • Ask your partner or friend to stop with you.
  • Tell your family and friends that you're stopping and when. They can be an important source of support both before and after you stop.
Tips To Use Just Before Stopping...
  • Practice going without cigarettes.
  • Think of stopping in terms of one day at a time.
  • Stop carrying cigarettes.
  • Don't empty your ashtrays. This will remind you of how many cigarettes you've smoked each day, and the sight and smell of stale butts will be very unpleasant.
  • Collect all your cigarette butts in one large glass container as a visual reminder of the mess smoking represents.
Tips For The Day You Stop Smoking...
  • Throw away all your cigarettes and matches. Hide lighters and ashtrays.
  • Clean your clothes to rid them of the cigarette smell.
  • Develop a clean, fresh, nonsmoking environment around yourself. Buy yourself flowers -- you may be surprised how much you can enjoy their scent now.
  • Make a list of things you'd like to buy for yourself or someone else. Estimate the cost in terms of packs of cigarettes and put the money aside to buy these presents.
  • Keep busy on the big day.
  • Buy yourself a treat or do something special to celebrate.
  • Stay away from other smokers if they could weaken your resolve.
  • Remember that one cigarette could ruin a successful attempt.
  • Remember that alcohol or other drugs will weaken willpower.
Tips To Help You Cope With The Urge To Smoke...
First, remind yourself that you've stopped and you're a non-smoker. Then, look closely at your urge to smoke and ask yourself:
  • Where was I when I got the urge?
  • What was I doing at the time?
  • Who was I with?
  • What was I thinking?
Think about why you've stopped. Repeat to yourself (aloud if you are alone) your three main reasons for stopping. Write down your three main reasons for stopping. Anticipate triggers and prepare to avoid them:
  • Keep your hands busy -- doodle, knit, type a letter.
  • Avoid people who smoke -- spend more time with non-smoking friends.
  • Find activities that make smoking difficult (gardening, exercise, washing the car, taking a shower).
  • Put something other than a cigarette into your mouth. Keep oral substitutes handy -- try carrots, sunflower seeds, apples, celery, raisins, or sugarless gum.
  • Cut a drinking straw into cigarette-sized pieces. Inhale air.
  • Use a mouthwash.
  • Change your surroundings when an urge hits; get up and move about, or do something else.
  • Avoid places where smoking is permitted.
  • Look at your watch whenever an urge to smoke hits you. You'll find the urge will only last a few minutes.
  • Wear a rubber band around your wrist. When you really feel like you want a cigarette, snap the rubber band a few times and in your mind say STOP. While you do this, picture in your mind a red stop sign. You might try this at home aloud a few times and then do it silently when in public.
  • Be prepared for the "first times" as a non-smoker: your first vacation, first time home alone, first long car ride, first period of boredom.

CPR  (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)

If you've ever watched a hospital show on TV, you've probably seen cardiopulmonary. That's when a doctor or another rescuer breathes into someone's mouth and presses on the person's chest. It's called CPR for short and it saves lives. Let's find out how it works.

What Is CPR?

Cardio means "of the heart" and pulmonary means "of the lungs." Resuscitation is a medical word that means "to revive" — or bring back to life. Sometimes CPR can help a person who has stopped breathing, and whose heart may have stopped beating, to stay alive.

People who handle emergencies — such as police officers, firefighters, paramedics, doctors, and nurses — are all trained to do CPR. Many other teens and adults — like lifeguards, teachers, child-care workers, and maybe even your mom or dad — know how to do CPR as well.

Here's what takes place during CPR: A person giving CPR — called a rescuer — will give some breaths to someone who is not breathing on his or her own. This is called artificial respiration (say: ar-tuh-fih-shul res-puh-ray-shun), mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing, or mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

To do this, a rescuer puts his or her mouth over the other person's open mouth and blows, forcing air into the lungs. (Ideally the rescuer will use a special mask so that their mouths don't actually have to touch.) Rescue breathing helps to move oxygen, which everyone needs to live, down into the lungs of the person who isn't breathing.

After giving two breaths, the rescuer will probably use both hands, one placed over the other, to press on the person's chest many times in a row to move blood out of a heart that has stopped beating. These are called chest compressions and they help move oxygen-carrying blood to the body's vital organs — especially the all-important brain. A person who goes too long without oxygen reaching the brain will die. After 30 chest compressions have been given, two more rescue breaths are given and the cycle continues until help arrives.

In between chest compressions, the person's rib cage relaxes long enough to let blood flow back toward the heart. In this way, the rescuer can keep the person alive by continuing to supply blood and oxygen to the brain and the rest of the body, until emergency help — like the paramedics — arrives to take the person to a hospital. Instead of doing mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing, professional rescuers — such as paramedics — will provide artificial breathing for someone by using a mask with a special hand pump connected to an oxygen tank. Doctors in the emergency department will put a tube into the person's windpipe to pump oxygen directly through the tube and into the lungs.

When Should Someone Use CPR?

The steps in CPR should be used whenever someone is not breathing and when the heart is not beating. After a couple of rescue breaths are given, 30 chest compressions should be started right away.

Someone can stop breathing and/or have cardiac arrest from:
  • heart attacks
  • strokes (when the blood flow to a part of the brain suddenly stops)
  • choking on something that blocks the entire airway
  • near-drowning incidents (when someone is under water for too long and stops breathing)
  • a very bad neck, head, or back injury
  • severe electrical shocks (like from touching a power line)
  • being very sick from a serious infection
  • too much bleeding
  • severe allergic reactions
If an emergency happens or someone becomes very sick while you're around, do your best to stay calm. First, try to get the person to respond by gently shaking his or her shoulder and asking, "Are you OK?" If there is no response and you are certified in CPR, you can begin CPR. If you're alone, shout for help or call 911 yourself.

Who Should Know CPR?

Certain people need to know how to perform CPR to do their jobs. Medical professionals — from nurses and doctors to paramedics and emergency medicine technicians — must know CPR. Lifeguards, child-care workers, school coaches, and trainers usually have to learn CPR. Many parents know how to perform CPR on their children in case of emergency. Other adults who have family members with medical conditions such as heart disease sometimes know CPR, too.

Many people — maybe you — may want to learn how to do CPR just in case they need to use it someday. You can never tell when a medical emergency will happen and it feels good to know that you could help. The American Red Cross, American Heart Association, and the National Safety Council all offer CPR courses. You also might find CPR classes at your local hospital, places of worship, the YMCA, or your school. You are usually ready to take a CPR course and get certified if you are in middle school or above.

Talk with your mom or dad if you'd like to learn how to do it. Knowing CPR can be a real lifesaver!


Do you know about your kidneys ?

Functions of Your Kidneys
  • Excretion of metabolic wastes
  • Balance Water in Body
  • Regulation of extra cellular fluid volume
  • Regulation of extra cellular electrolytes
  • Regulation of blood pressure
  • Regulation of red blood cell production
  • Keep Bones Healthy
Did You Know ?
  • The size of your Kidney is equivalent to your Fist
  • Kidneys Filter the blood of your body (approx. 5 liters) 300 times everyday.
  • If joined in series, Nephrons form a 100 km chain.
  • A Normal person utilizes only 30% of their Kidneys capacity
  • A person can live a normal life with only one Kidney !
Reasons For Kidney Failure
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Infection of the Nephron
  • Kidney Stones
  • Accidents
Prevent Kidney Failure By…
  • Drinking 8-10 glasses of good quality water everyday
  • Avoiding overdose of drugs
  • Taking appropriate treatment for kidney stones
  • Controlling High Blood Pressure and Diabetes
  • Avoiding Sedentary life
  • Avoiding Alcoholic drinks
Prevention, through awareness and early detection, is the key to avoid kidney failure.

Kidney Stone

When should I call a doctor?

If you have a kidney stone, you may already know how painful it can be. Most kidney stones pass out of the body without help from a doctor. But sometimes a stone will not just go away. It may even get larger. Your doctor can help.
You should call a doctor when you have
  • extreme pain in your back or side that will not go away
  • blood in your urine
  • fever and chills
  • vomiting
  • urine that smells bad or looks cloudy
  • a burning feeling when you urinate
These may be signs of a kidney stone that needs a doctor’s care.

What do my kidneys do?

Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. The kidneys are sophisticated trash collectors. Every day, your kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The waste and extra water become urine, which flows to your bladder through tubes called ureters. Your bladder stores urine until you go to the bathroom.
The wastes in your blood come from the normal breakdown of active muscle and from the food you eat. Your body uses the food for energy and self repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste is sent to the blood. If your kidneys did not remove these wastes, the wastes would build up in the blood and damage your body. In addition to removing wastes, your kidneys help control blood pressure. They also help to make red blood cells and keep your bones strong.

What is a kidney stone?

A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in the kidney out of substances in the urine. A stone may stay in the kidney or break loose and travel down the urinary tract. A small stone may pass all the way out of the body without causing too much pain. A larger stone may get stuck in a ureter, the bladder, or the urethra. A problem stone can block the flow of urine and cause great pain.

Are all kidney stones alike?

No. There are four major types of kidney stones.
  • The most common type of stone contains calcium. Calcium is a normal part of a healthy diet. Calcium that is not used by the bones and muscles goes to the kidneys. In most people, the kidneys flush out the extra calcium with the rest of the urine. People who have calcium stones keep the calcium in their kidneys. The calcium that stays behind joins with other waste products to form a stone.
  • A struvite stone may form after an infection in the urinary system. These stones contain the mineral magnesium and the waste product ammonia.
  • A uric acid stone may form when there is too much acid in the urine. If you tend to form uric acid stones, you may need to cut back on the amount of meat you eat.
  • Cystine stones are rare. Cystine is one of the building blocks that make up muscles, nerves, and other parts of the body. Cystine can build up in the urine to form a stone. The disease that causes cystine stones runs in families.
What do kidney stones look like?

Kidney stones may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a pearl. Some stones are even as big as golf balls. Stones may be smooth or jagged. They are usually yellow or brown.

What can my doctor do about a problem stone?

If you have a stone that will not pass by itself, your doctor may need to take steps to get rid of it. In the past, the only way to remove a problem stone was through surgery.

Now, doctors have new ways to remove problem stones. The following pages describe a few of these methods.

Shock Waves
Your doctor can use a machine to send shock waves directly to the kidney stone. The shock waves break a large stone into small stones that will pass through your urinary system with your urine. Two types of shock wave machines exist. With one machine, you sit in a tub of water. With the other type of machine, you lie on a table. The full name for this method is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy . Doctors often call it ESWL for short. Lithotripsy is a Greek word that means stone crushing.

Tunnel Surgery
In this method, the doctor makes a small cut into the patient’s back and makes a narrow tunnel through the skin to the stone inside the kidney. With a special instrument that goes through the tunnel, the doctor can find the stone and remove it. The technical name for this method is percutaneous nephrolithotomy .

A ureteroscope looks like a long wire. The doctor inserts it into the patient’s urethra, passes it up through the bladder, and directs it to the ureter where the stone is located. The ureteroscope has a camera that allows the doctor to see the stone. A cage is used to catch the stone and pull it out, or the doctor may destroy it with a device inserted through the ureteroscope.
Ask your doctor which method is right for you.

How will my doctor find out what kind of stone I have?

The best way for your doctor to find out what kind of stone you have is to test the stone itself. If you know that you are passing a stone, try to catch it in a strainer.
Your doctor may ask for a urine sample or take blood to find out what is causing your stones. You may need to collect your urine for a 24-hour period. These tests will help your doctor find ways for you to avoid stones in the future.

Why do I need to know the kind of stone?

The therapy your doctor gives you depends on the type of stone you have. For example, a medicine that helps prevent calcium stones will not work if you have a struvite stone. The diet changes that help prevent uric acid stones may have no effect on calcium stones. Therefore, careful analysis of the stone will help guide your treatment. Try to catch a stone in a strainer.

What can I do to avoid more stones?

Drink more water. Try to drink 12 full glasses of water a day. Drinking lots of water helps to flush away the substances that form stones in the kidneys.

You can also drink ginger ale, lemon-lime sodas, and fruit juices. But water is best. Limit your coffee, tea, and cola to one or two cups a day because the caffeine may cause you to lose fluid too quickly.

Your doctor may ask you to eat more of some foods and to cut back on other foods. For example, if you have a uric acid stone, your doctor may ask you to eat less meat, because meat breaks down to make uric acid.

The doctor may give you medicines to prevent calcium and uric acid stones.

Points to Remember

  • Most stones will pass out of the body without a doctor’s help.
  • See your doctor if you have severe pain in your back or side that will not go away.
  • See your doctor if you have blood in your urine (urine will appear pink).
  • Drink lots of water to prevent more kidney stones from forming.
  • When you pass a stone, try to catch it in a strainer to show to your doctor.
  • Talk to your doctor about how to avoid more stones.

Acidity may be defined as sour or burning sensation in the chest, which is caused by regurgitation of the excessive acid secretion into the upper end of the esophagus.

It is advisable to chew the food properly and drink lot of water for proper digestion and absorption. Pregnant women suffer from heartburn as the uterus presses on the digestive tract as the fetus grows.

Normally the stomach secretes an acid, which is essential for the digestion. This acid helps in the breakdown of the food. When there is excessive secretion of this acid by the stomach it results in acidity. Its common symptoms are dyspepsia, heartburn and formation of the ulcers. It is more common in emotional and nervous individuals.

This is caused due to excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid, either from an increased quantity of the gastric juice or increased concentration of hydrochloric acid in it.

Other reason for this may be fermentation of organic acids such as lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid. Increased acidity with regurgitation causes some amount of oesophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus), which increases the sensitiveness. Acidity causes reflex increased secretion of alkaline saliva, which accumulates in the esophagus and is rushed into the mouth without any sensation of vomiting. This is commonly associated with duodenal ulcer.

Causes of hyperacidity are gastro duodenal (peptic) ulcer; reflex pylorospasm from any cause and sometimes-excessive smoking can also lead to severe acidity. The amount of free hydrochloric acid in the stomach does not gives the measure of the total acidity of gastric secretions i.e. amount of total chlorides indicates the better.

Most acidity problems occur after meals, when doing some heavy exercise and applying pressure in the intra-abdominal region or at night when lying down.

Home remedies for acidity:



Anemia may be defined as the deficiency of the blood as a whole. It may occur due to many reasons. A person having a normal blood level may lose blood due to serious accident or illness. Our body compensates this loss by pouring in more fluid or plasma. But the red cells are not replaced so quickly. The person may have sufficient fluid in circulation, but the red cell count may be so low that he feels week and fatigued on doing slightest physical work. However slow bleeding from an ulcer in the stomach or intestine may also lead to anemia. If the loss of red cells is more as compare to its production it will definitely produce the signs and symptoms of anemia.

Anemia may also occur due to heavy menstrual bleeding. There are different types of anemia depending upon the different reasons.

Haemolytic anemia results due to weak red cells. In this type of anemia red cells are very sensitive and they are easily destroyed in the spleen.

In other types of anemia the red cells are not properly formed. Their shape becomes spherical or irregular. Then they cause trouble in the spleen, and ulcers may develop in the legs and there are changes in the bone also. In some types of anemia the hemoglobin may be defective in formation and it is not able to carry out its normal functions.

In sickle cell anemia the red cells are of sickle shape and this blocks their passage through the capillaries. These patients may also have jaundice and joint pains along with anemia.

In pernicious anemia the red blood cells may be larger in size than the normal, but fewer in number. Problem arises because the intrinsic factor, which is normally produced by the stomach, is not present to absorb the vitamin B 12 from the intestine.

Iron deficiency anemia occurs due to lower levels of the iron in the body, due to chronic blood loss, or due to poor diet. Iron may also be lost from the body due to chronic diarrhoea. Any patient with severe hookworm infection will also have some anemia. Iron may not be properly absorbed due to insufficient production of hydrochloric acid. Sometimes this occurs during pregnancy. It not affects the mother but also the baby. Babies who are fed on a milk diet for too long suffer from iron deficiency anemia.

The patient complains of weakness, easy fatigue, and irritability. Other symptoms may include heartburn, flatulence, abdominal pains, soreness in the mouth, numbness and tingling in the extremities and palpitation of the heart.

The skin and mucous membranes are pale, the nails are brittle, and there are fissures or sores at the corners of the mouth.

It is important to take a nutritious diet. Diet rich in cereals, rice, pastas, dairy products (milk, yogurt and cheese), vegetables and fruits, meat, poultry and fish, and finally dry beans, eggs, and nuts. Right diet helps to fight against any kind of disease.




Good Appetite is associated with a hypertonic stomach, normal muscular efficiency and digestion. Probably it depends upon pleasant odor and memory of good food and sharpness of appetite. Further some individuals have likings for a particular kind of food often from habit. This food habit is another important item in inducing good appetite.

Hunger is a painful sensation when the stomach is empty for sometime, caused by increased tonic and peristaltic action of the gastric contents. After a normal meal, the stomach slowly relaxes comfortably accommodating the food.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder affecting mainly girls or women, although boys or men can also suffer from it. It usually starts in the teenage years. On account of any mental depression or a fanciful idea (especially for reducing obesity), she takes less food than normal. The appetite gradually lessens.

There is a strong, fear of putting on weight, who suffers from anorexia. There are recommendations regarding how much food is allowed and how much exercise is needed after eating certain amounts of food. Those suffering from anorexia pursue a very low 'ideal' weight. The weight loss may cause hormonal disturbances and women with anorexia nervosa may stop having periods. Body weight is maintained at least 15 per cent below that expected for a person's height. It is self-induced weight loss caused by avoiding fattening foods and may involve taking excessive exercise, using laxatives or diuretics or self-induced vomiting.

Puberty, deaths in the family and other life stresses are all believed to be the main causes of anorexia. Self-induced weight loss includes fasting, low food intake, excessive exercise, diuretic medicines (medicines that make you urinate more) laxatives, diet pills or vomiting.




Arthritis is defined as the inflammation of one or more joints. Serious deformities occur in the bones and joints. These may occur in the form of tumours, swellings, and new growths. It occurs usually during the later years of life but it can occur at any age. One or two joints may become completely deformed.

Exact cause of the arthritis is not known. Germs, which cause the tuberculosis, pneumonia can also affect the joints.

Syphilis and gonorrhea can be another cause for arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is the most serious condition that involves the joints but also the muscles, tendons and other tissues of the body. It begins slowly with mild swelling, pain and tenderness in the joints of the fingers, wrists, knees and feet. Joints of both side of the body are involved in this disease. The joints feel red and warm. During the early phase of the disease the patient complains of fatigue, weakness and pain.

During the time of pain the patient should take rest for one or two hours in a day. The patient must not lie in bed for too long. It will aggravate the symptoms.

Exercise is important in rheumatoid arthritis. It will help to prevent the stiffness of muscles.

Osteoarthritis is a chronic form of arthritis involving any joint but it mainly occurs in largejoints such as fingers. It mainly occurs in women after the menopause, but it may occur in young age also.

In osteoarthritis the cartilage of the joints is destroyed and the bone surfaces become rough and enlarged. This disease begins slowly and with some pain in the joints. The main complaint is pain, which is severe after exercise.

There are several drugs that are used for the pain and inflammation of arthritis, but most of them are not very effective, because they cause lot of side effects. For example ibuprofen (Advil) or naproxen (Aleve), and even other more powerful prescription drugs, causes severe gastrointestinal problems, such as, bleeding ulcers, acidosis, stomach pain, and they interfere with the synthesis of collagen, which is fundamental for the formation of cartilage, if cartilage is not rebuilding itself, more damage is going to occur in the joints.

"There's no one magic food or diet that's going to do away with arthritic pain," says Art Mollen, D.O., director of the Southwest Health Institute in Phoenix, Arizona. "But if a person is overweight and helose weight, it will reduce the stress and pain in spinal column, knees, hips, ankles, and feet."



Athlete’s foot

Athlete’s foot is a form of ringworm of the feet. It is particularly common in warmer climates, and in individuals whose feet are constantly wet because of excessive sweating. When the disease is present over long periods of time, the toenails may become thickened.

The condition is highly contagious, and is often contracted by contact with infected skin particles in a warm room, shower, around public swimming pools or other similar public areas.

If repeated fungal infections are developed, it might be a sign of fungus in the groin area in these cases the problem should be treated simultaneously. Symptoms are: burning sensation between toes, itching, redness, scaling, blistering.

Sometimes people who have taken antibioticscontract athlete's foot. The antibiotics can compromise the immune system by killing the good bacteria with the bad, leaving the person susceptible to infection. Without the good bacteria, the intestines can't synthesize the B vitamins, which help enhance the immune system.

In chronic athlete’s foot, the skin of the sides and sole of the foot is pink and scaly and there is no itchiness.



Age spots

Age spots are most commonly known as liver spots or brown spots. These are thought to be due to over aging. But the main reason for these brown spots is over exposure to the sun. These are brown colored spots on the skin mainly seen on the face, shoulders, arms or exposed areas of the skin.

They are a result of excessive production of melanin. Melanin is the pigment in your skin responsible for uneven tanning. Such “ brown or sun spots” may also be the telltale sign of accumulated wastes or some dysfunction.

Age spots are pigmentary changes associated with mature and senile skin but the damage is not due to maturity, these spots and leathery skin are almost always the result of your body trying to protect itself from too much sun exposure.

Age spots are common after 55 years old. They are harmless and painless but may affect the cosmetic appearance. Though most age spots are harmless blemishes, but in advanced stage they can lead to skin cancer.

Age spots may also be caused by impaired liver function, and a dietary deficiency, or a variety of nutritional problems. As we advance in age our health changes, our metabolism changes and our liver may become so overloaded with toxins that it cannot efficiently process the toxins or help the body to get rid of them. The oxidation process within our body and a lack of antioxidants also plays a role in this process. Liver spots are one of the results. Liver spots typically take years to form, though they have been found in young children, and eliminating the spots will also take time.




Most Backaches begin while bending forward to pick up something from the floor. The pain usually comes on suddenly without warning, and it may be very difficult to straighten up to a standing position again. In most cases it is felt either in the middle of the back or lower down on one side. If a spinal disc is involved, the pain may extend down the thigh and leg along the sciatic nerve on that side.

The most common cause of backache may be due to decrease in exercise that makes the muscles of the back strong and healthy. Flabby muscles then produce a wobbly spine, followed by pain, spasm and misery especially if a disc is ruptured. Weakened muscles and damaged discs are not the only causes of low back pain. Other causes are menstruation, pregnancy, female disorders, kidney and bladder conditions, as well as rectal and prostatic diseases. Usually these bring little or no pain on moving the back.

Arthritis of the spine is another common cause of low back pain. Fracturesof the spine often result in severe back pain. A qualified surgeon who can prescribe any appliances or supports that may be needed should treat such conditions. A sprained back is the result of a bending or overextension of a joint beyond its capacity. Any unexpected twisting of the body, such as in car accident, may cause a badly sprained back. But merely bending over to pick up one’s shoes may also produce a sudden pain in the middle of the back, making it difficult to straighten up again. All movements must then be restricted to prevent further pain.

Regular exerciseis important. As soon as the pain begin to decrease, the patient should lie on the floor with his hands behind the neck and raise the legs high in the air. First one at time, then together. Repeat this a dozen times each morning and night. Careful bending from side to side and also rotating the upper part of the body while holding the lower part steady will help to strengthen the back and keep the muscles strong and healthy. At the same time it will restore tone to all tendons, ligaments and joints.

Another condition known as osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones, is often seen in elderly people. This may cause collapse and wedging of one or more of vertebrae, due to the weakening of the bones, which often occurs in the later years of life. Such conditions need careful medical management to prevent further deformity and pain. They should be given a good diet, including sufficient amount of protein and calcium to restore the tissues of the bones. Neck pain that arises from long hours at the desk or by driving car for long can be relieved by certain neck exercises. These include rotating the head clockwise and anticlockwise, allowing the head to drop forward and backward as far as possible and turning the head to the right and left as far as possible several times. These exercises help to loosen up contracted neck muscles, which may restrict the blood supply to the head.

The diet of those suffering from backache should consist of a salad of raw vegetables such as tomato, carrot, cabbage, cucumber, radish, lettuce and at least two steamed or lightly cooked vegetables such as cauliflower, cabbage, carrot, spinach and plenty of fruits, all except bananas.

The patient should avoid fatty, spicy, and fried foods; curd, sweetmeats and sugar; condiments; and tea and coffee. Most backaches could be avoided following a few simple rules:

  1. Lift with legs, not the back. Bend your knees when you wish to pick up something heavy. Keep the back straight.
  2. Avoid overexertion. A person who is not accustomed to heavy lifting should not try to carry too much at a time.
  3. Exercise regularly. Don’t overdo a good thing like exercise. Taking a moderate amount regularly will do more good than strenuous exercise on rare occasions.
  4. Change your position frequently. Avoid cramped sitting positions that bring on fatigue. Move around. Keep flexible. If you do have back trouble, do not worry. With proper treatment your back will soon be better.



Bad breath

Bad breath is most objectionable. It is also known as halitosis. Most people who suffer from this problem are not aware of their problem. The common cause of this problem is bad teeth. Dental decay at the roots of the teeth may result in abscesses in the gums with foul smelling pus giving bad odor to the breath.

Even small holes in the teeth may provide a place where germs can multiply and give foul odors. These are very common in younger people. Badly fitting dentures that are not cleaned properly also leads to bad breathe. It is common in old people. Bad breath does not arise from the stomach. Actually, anaerobic bacteria in mouth produce smelly sulfur compounds that cause bad breath.

Other causes for the bad breathe may be infection of the tonsils, adenoids or sinuses. Bad breath may also arise from the inflammation in the stomach and also from the food materials that have not been completely digested. Tobacco, alcohol, alcohol containing mouth rinses, dry mouth, foods like garlic, onion, and spicy foods, hunger, morning breath, poor oral hygiene can also cause bad breath.

Colds, coughs and sore throats are also reasons for bad breath, because the surrounding area in the mouth has increased bacterial content.

Everybody gets bad breath or halitosis somehow or the other, no matter how good oral hygiene. Bad breath is usually caused due to poor diet, drying of the mouth, not brushing teeth regularly, illness, low fluid intake, stress, lack of salivary flow and exercise. Some people are more prone to bad breath (halitosis) than others, and need to pay extra attention in order to maintain fresh breath.

The bacterial waste products that are the common cause of bad breath are produced when oral anaerobic bacteria digest proteins. After eating a meal we should clean our mouth immediately.

Drinking plenty of water throughout the day will help to control bad breath (halitosis ). Dehydration will try to conserve moisture by reducing salivary flow, thus minimizing saliva's cleansing and diluting effects on the bacteria and bacterial waste products that are the cause of bad breath.

Gurgles with plain water is also another bad breath solution. Rinsing will both dilute and partially remove the bacterial waste products that are the cause of bad breath.




Partial or complete loss of hair on the scalp is common among men. It is less commonly found in women. Premature baldness is found in certain families. Thinning of the hair is often seen in older women, but complete baldness in the female is fortunately rare. Temporary baldness may occur following a fever or some prolonged illness. The hair usually returns after the patient has recovered from the illness.

Sudden loss of the hair in certain areas is a condition, which is called alopecia areata, may sometimes occur after a nervous shock. This may disappear in a few weeks, although sometimes it will recur. In females excessive hair loss is seen after delivery and during lactation. This is only due to hormonal changes in the body and due to suckling of the milk by the child. This disappears after the child stops weaning. It is not a permanent problem.

In children falling of hair occurs due to many reasons such as severe headache, dim eyesight, after a prolonged illness, use of different shampoos and soaps, after a severe head injury and a familial tendency. Generally it is seen that if the parents have thin hair and early loss of hair in their life so is their children.

Hormones in our body check the development of hair that growss after puberty. The male hormone, testosterone, checks the beard, body hair and hair in the armpits. The female hormone, estrogen, prevents hair growth on the chin and helps it to grow on the head. Occasionally women develop signs of hair loss or baldness when estrogen levels falls. Treatment with estrogen has been successful in the treatment of hair growth and stopping of hair loss.

The healthy condition of the hair depends, on the intake of sufficient amounts of essential nutrients in the daily diet. Persons with a tendency to lose hair should take a well-balanced and correct diet, made up of foods, which, in combination, should supply all the essential nutrients. It has been found that a diet, which contains large quantities of seeds, nuts, grains, vegetables and fruits, would provide adequate amounts of all the essential nutrients.

Many people use various shampoos and creams to prevent hair loss but with no gain.




Breast-feedingis the way that creates a bond of love between the mother and the child. Mother’s milk is the best for the babies. A baby who feeds on mother’s milk has fewer problems of stomach upsets, less diarrhea, and almost no constipation. He will also have less skin trouble. Breast milk is the best food for a newborn; nothing comes even closer to provide all the nutrients that the baby will need later in life. Breast milk is much easier to digest then any formula in the market, at the same time it provides protection against infections, prevents future food allergies, helps the growth of healthy teeth, and most important it improves brain development.

Breast-feeding not only benefits the child but also to the health of the mother. The pelvic organs will return to normal more quickly, and skin will glow. This is one of nature’s ways to keep a woman young and beautiful.

Breast-feeding is much easier than other formulas and bottles.

Breast engorgement is a common problem that occurs in the feeding mothers in the first two or three weeks after delivery and is more annoying to women with poor skin elasticity. Engorgement is due to increase in the milk filling the breast together with blood and fluid retention in the same area.

Usually the breast feels full, hard, tight, tender, painful, and hot to the touch and a fever may develop, the baby may have a hard time to suck.

Plugged duct is a problem that occurs when the baby does not empty the breast completely on each feeding, the milk remaining in the duct hardens and blocks the duct eventually plugging it. Tight bras can cause plugged ducts as well. If the breast feels sore it might be a sign of plugged ducts.

Feeding the child in the wrong position can crack nipples.




Burns are serious, not only because of pain in the area of the burn itself, but also because of possible chemical changes in other parts of the body. Burns are among the most common household emergencies. Hot liquids, stoves, radiators, unguarded electric outlets, firecrackers, chemicals, irons, gasfires, and sunburn often burn young children. The greatest danger arises from the shock, which follows a deep burn involving a large area of the body.

The symptoms of a first-degree burn are pain, heat, redness and tender to the touch in the skin affected. These symptoms can appear from 1 to 24 hours after exposure to the sun.

The symptoms of a second-degree burn are extreme reddening, swelling; pain and even blisters can appear. The burn reaches the deeper layers of the skin where it damages the small blood vessels and elastic fibers in the skin, and later there is wrinkling of the skin. In most severe cases, chills, fever, nausea, and/or delirium may accompany the burn.

In severe burns the loss of body fluids can be very serious, particularly in a young child. The kidneys and adrenal glands may not function well, and other internal organs may be more affected. Even a small burn may produce a serious deformity if it occurs over a large joint, such as the knee. Deep burns often result in the formation of considerable scar tissue.

Severe burns involve the deeper layers of the skin and usually cause large blisters. Burns are always more serious when face, hands, feet or genital organs are involved.

Chemical burns are often serious, and may result in deep scars. Steam and dry heat burns should be treated as ant other severe burn.



canker sores

Painful ulcers or canker sores are sometimes found within the mouth. Usually there is only one ulcer, but occasionally several may develop at once. Food allergies are a major cause of many cankers. Certain factors, such as stress, poor dental hygiene, candidiasis, food allergies, and nutritional deficiencies are possible triggers for canker sores.

Nutritional deficiencies are another possible cause. Deficiencies in iron, zinc, B12, and folate (folic acid) can contribute to cankers. The subjects are usually young children often suffering from some digestive disturbances. Small vesicles form on the inner surface of the lips and cheeks and also on the tongue, which in 24 hours rupture to form ulcers. The mouth is painful and salivation is often marked. The child is not able to eat food.

There may be a family history to develop canker sores, as they often run in families. Ulcers may develop in response to a mouth injury such as dental procedures or aggressive tooth cleaning. Canker sores may also occur at the site of a bite when the tongue or cheek is bitten.

Swallowing and talking are painful, there may be excessive salivation and bad breath, and the inflammation may extend to the tonsils and throat. A mild fever may be present in this condition. The first sign of the sore may be a tingling, burning sensation inside the mouth. They can occur either singly or in groups. They are usually white or yellow in color, surrounded by red halos. Usually they heal within 7 to 10 days.

The membrane of the mouth may be very dry or exceedingly moist. There is pain on nursing, eating or drinking; the pain varies according to the condition or stage of the disease. The pains may be sharp or sticking if the mouth is dry or smarting and raw if the mouth is full of saliva. These ulcers may be broad and superficial or deep and narrow. Small ulcers may combine together and may form large ulcers on the side of the tongue or in the buccal cavities.




Cholesterol is present in the diet of all people, and it can be absorbed slowly from the gastrointestinal tract into the intestinal lymph. It is highly fat soluble but only slightly soluble in water and is capable of forming esters with fatty acids. Food rich in nucleic acids and nucleoprotein e.g. meat, fish, organ meats also should be avoided. Cooking in olive oil, safflower, sunflower is good for people with high cholesterol.

Factors that affect plasma cholesterol concentration. The important factors that affect plasma cholesterol concentration are as follows:

  1. An increase in the amount of cholesterol ingested each day increases the plasma concentration slightly.
  2. A highly saturated fat diet increases blood cholesterol concentration 15 to 20 percent
  3. Ingestion of fat containing highly unsaturated fatty acids usually depresses the blood cholesterol concentration in slight to moderate amount.
  4. Lack of insulin or thyroid hormone increases the blood cholesterol concentration, whereas excess thyroid hormone decreases the concentration.
Normal blood cholesterol varies between 150 –200 mgm per 100 ml, which is equally distributed between plasma and cells. But in the cells it is present chiefly in the free form, while in the plasma the major part remains occurs in the combined form as esters. The rise of blood cholesterol is associated with the rise in bile cholesterol. There is also rise in blood cholesterol when cholesterol rich diet is not ingested which indicates that this is due to increased absorption of cholesterol derived from bile.

Arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis are the results of diet containing high cholesterol. In hypothyroidism blood cholesterol rises. In diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis, blood cholesterol is often found to be high

The most important factor in causing atherosclerosis is a high blood plasma concentration of cholesterol in the form of low-density lipoproteins. The plasma concentration of these high cholesterol low-density lipoproteins is directly increased by increased saturated fat in the daily diet. To a lesser extent, it is also increased by increased cholesterol in the diet. Therefore, both or either of these dietary factors can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

Familial hypercholesterolemi a is a hereditary disease in which the person inherits defective genes for the formation of low-density lipoproteins receptors on the membrane surfaces of the body cells. In the absence of these receptors, the liver cannot reabsorb either the intermediate density lipoproteins or the low-density lipoproteins.




Colitis more commonly known as irritable colon is a common disorder of the large bowel, producing discomfort and irregular bowel habits. Most patients suffering from an irritable colon are tense, anxious, and hurried. Many of them eat rapidly and at odd times.

Normally the colon is tend to store the waster material until most of the fluids have been removed. People who suffer from irritable colon do not have normal peristaltic or wave like movements in the large bowel, but rather irregular and erratic contractions, which are particularly seen on the left side.

It is a function of the colon to absorb fluid. Therefore if the stools remain to long in the colon without being passed, they become hard and dry. Feeling of fullness or bloating develop because gas is not absorbed or normally expelled. Because the bowel becomes irritated, excessive amounts of mucus are produced within the bowel, resulting in colitis. Some patients suffer from constipation, alternating with periods of loose stools. In still others persistent diarrhea may continue for years.

Chronic ulcerative colitis is a severe, prolonged inflammation of the colon or large bowel in which ulcers form in the walls of the colon, resulting in the passage of bloody stools mixed with mucus and pus.

Chronic ulcerative colitis usually appears in the lower part of the bowel and spreads upward. The disease seems to attack adults more frequently. The first sign is an increased urgency to move the bowel, followed by cramping pains in the abdomen and bloody mucus in the stool. As the condition become more worse the stools become more loose and watery.

The more severe cases often continue night and day with little relief. All this loss of blood and fluid from the bowel results in weakness, fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and anemia.



Common Cold

Although the Common Cold affects all parts of the body, it usually begins in the nose and throat. Colds are so common that we do not care for it but they can be serious. Most colds are due to virus infections of one type or another. Unfortunately, none of these viruses are susceptible to our present antibiotic medicines. Adenoviruses produce the more serious type of colds, and they are often followed by tonsillitis and sore throat even virus pneumonia, particularly in children. Sometimes the membranes of the eyes are also involved.

The common cold is the most prevalent of all diseases known to man. The average person seems to have two or three colds a year. The condition is highly contagious. When one member of the family has a cold, the others are very likely to have it within a few days.

What makes a person susceptible to a cold? Probably his lowered resistance is a chief factor. Allergic disorders of the nose and throat also make a person more susceptible to colds and other virus infections. Chilling of the body does seem to play a part, particularly in those whose resistance is already weak. Lack of sleep may be another factor.

Any person may carry the cold virus. However, children under six years of age seem readily to pass the infection from one to another, and soon all the family is involved. Colds are always more serious in the younger children.

Congestion of the nasal passages is usually the first sign of cold. The patient may have frequent sneezing and a severe headache. There may be a thin, watery discharge from the nose, requiring the use of many handkerchiefs. The eyes may be red or irritated. Usually there is some rise in temperature, preceded by chilly feelings. The patient may complain of a sore throat and have some difficulty in swallowing. Hoarseness, or laryngitis, indicates that the infection has reached the vocal cords, and the patient may now have to talk in whispers. Later there may be a deep cough, due to bronchitis. This is a much more complication.

Even though scientists claim there is no cure for the common cold, there are natural herbs and vitamin supplements that can be taken to fight against the cold virus.




Constipation means difficult or infrequent passage of the stool. In some cases it is due to mechanical obstruction of the intestines, such as cancer, diverticulitis, or perhaps due to some functional cause, such as an irritable colon. In most cases there is no actual obstruction. Regular bowel movement is necessary to remove waste and toxins from the body. Some people will have movements every day, some others 3 times a week, this is normal, whereas some doctors believe that a person moving bowels less then once a day to be constipated.

Constipation actually has two forms. Some people have to strain to move their bowels every time they want to go. But others just feel the urge too seldom.

Many elderly people suffer from constipation. , due to insufficient intake of fluid. They may think they are drinking enough, but careful observation may reveal that they are having only two or three glasses of liquid a day. For normal bowel habits, one should drink from six to eight glasses of fluid each day.

Many people suffering from constipation become dependent upon laxatives in early childhood. This is most unfortunate, for it means that the child may be dependent on drugs for the rest of his life. As far as possible do not use an enema on a child unless absolutely necessary. Laxatives and enemas are only for unusual conditions. Nature will provide for the normal needs of the body. It is important for a child to have proper diet so that its bowels remain regular and do not become constipated. This requires a diet high in fiber. Foods such as whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes (beans), should be served with every meal.

Constipation can also result from spasm of a small segment of the sigmoid colon. It should be recalled that motility, even normally, is weak in the large intestine, so that even a slight degree of spasm is often capable of causing serious constipation. After the constipation has continued for several days and excessive feces have accumulated above the spastic sigmoid colon, excessive colonic secretions often lead to a day or so of diarrhea.

Constipation can be caused by lack of exercise, too much junk food, poor diet, painkillers, antidepressants and/or pregnancy. However some chronic problems such as thyroid problems, circulatory disorder, diverticulitis, colon malfunction (fistulas, polyps, tumors, and obstruction) can also cause constipation. Children should also get plenty of liquids to drink everyday, especially clear liquids such as fruit juices and water. When a child is constipated, push lots of water!

The diet should be rich in fruits and vegetables, for these are natural laxatives. The patient should have regular meals and avoid nervous tension. He should sleep at least 8 hours a night and take regular exercise. Many cases of constipation are relieved by the use of prune juice, figs, bananas, or other natural laxatives. Sensible habits of living, plus 6 – 8 glasses of water per day and a reasonable amount of exercise will cure most people of constipation.




This is the commonest symptom of nearly all respiratory diseases and is indicative of an effort to expel a foreign substance causing irritation on any place in the cough reflex path.

The center is in the medulla close to the respiratory centers. This is activated reflexly by the afferent impulses traveling up mostly along the vagus and to a less extent, the vagus and the phrenic (to bronchi and diaphragm), the spinal accessory, intercostals and other nerves supplying the accessory muscles of respiration. The peripheral fibres of the vagus and the phrenic are also sometimes directly affected causing cough reflex.

The medullary center itself may also be excited or restrained by impulses from superior cerebella centers, so that cough may be induced or controlled by voluntary efforts.

Cough is usually due to disturbances in the respiratory passage or pleurae, irritation in the nose and the ear or sometimes in the abdominal viscera inflammation or irritation.

It is important to make a note of the age of the patient, duration of the cough also what part of the day or night it is worst, voice is affected or not and if paroxysmal, painful or associated with any change of posture or vomiting.

In the morning is often due to bronchitis, bronchiectasis or tubeculous cavity. Night’s accumulated secretion is coughed out. If expectoration is absent non-productive cough, either there is simple congestion of the mucous membranes especially of the upper respiratory tract or such extra- pulmonary conditions as pleurisy or it is a reflex from other viscera.




The term Dandruff includes several different conditions of the scalp. There is scaling in which the entire scalp may be covered with loose dry scales. When the hair is combed or brushed, or when the scalp is scratched, these scales fall like snow on the shoulders. Often there is itching, as well, and the scalp may be red from scratching.

If the scalp is covered with greasy scales, wash the hair thoroughly every day, using some good soap or medicated shampoo. Frequent washing will not harm the hair.

Itching lesions of the scalp are often due toneurodermatitis especially when it occurs on the back of the head.

Keep the hair and scalp clean by frequent shampoo. Clean your comb and brush after each use.

Mild dandruff is the result of excessive oiliness of the skin and not due to dryness of the scalp. Chronic dandruff may occur due to psoriasis of the scalp. Dandruff can occur to anybody at any age. It should not be left untreated.

The most important point in the treatment of dandruff is to keep the hair and scalp clean so as to decrease the accumulation of dead cells. The hair should be brushed daily to improve the circulation and remove any flakiness. The most effective way to brush the hair is to bend forward from the waist with the head down towards the ground and brush from the nape of the neck towards the top of the head. Massage the scalp daily using one-finger tips and working systematically over the head. This should be done just before or after brushing the hair. Like brushing, this stimulates the circulation, dislodges dirt and dandruff and helps in the hair growth.

People should avoid spicy and greasy food because it helps dandruff to increase and spread. People should add more vegetables and fruits on the diet. It is very essential to take fresh foods avoid taking tinned and canned foods add more green vegetables and fruits.

Strong tea and coffee, processed foods should be avoided for the dandruff.




Sudden loss of fluids from the body due to different reasons lead to Dehydration. The patient suffers from intense thirst. His tongue is white and dry. His skin is wrinkled, the eyeballs sunken, cheeks hollow, and breathing is labored and difficult. Because of the lack of fluids in the body, the blood pressure falls, and the temperature may be subnormal although the pulse rate may be rapid. Dehydration is dangerous. It is the single leading cause of childhood death around the world.

Children with vomiting or diarrhea are most likely to become dehydrated. Both can increase the fluid losses and may decrease fluid intake. Children become dehydrated much more rapidly than adults. Children with mild to moderate dehydration may have dry mouths, fewer tears when they cry, darker urine, and a sunken soft spot. They become less active than usual.

As dehydration worsens, children usually become more irritable and lethargic. The pulse grows faster and weaker. The eyes will be very sunken and the lips and mucus membranes very dry. The skin may wrinkle. Urine decreases even further. The hands and feet may become cold or blue. Muscle cramps are common.

Dehydration will last until fluid and electrolyte intake surpasses what is being lost, and fluid and electrolyte reserves have been restored.




Individuals suffering from different types of mental disorder are sometimes said to be insane, but the term insanity is a legal one, not a medical term. An insane person is one who cannot distinguish right from wrong or assume responsibilities for his own actions. In the case of a psychotic patient the whole personality is involved. And he is completely out of touch with real world around. Not so the neurotic patient. Only a small part of his personality is involved. Psychotic patients often require hospitalization; neurotic patients rarely do, unless they have some additional physical problem.

Another distinction between these two major groups is that his friends usually bring the psychotic patient to the doctor, while the neurotic comes of his own. He knows he is sick, and he usually wants help. Most often he is suffering from a nervous Depression.

Reactive depression : This is a simple depression or sadness, which is usually brought on by some unhappy event, such as losing one’s home or business in a fire, or perhaps by the death of some loved one in the family. When something like this happens most people passed through a few days or weeks of sadness and then try to carry on as best they can. The patient with a reactive depression seems unable to do this. His grief lasts a long time, and he may be so disturbed as to be unable to do his normal work.

Physiotherapy or mind treatment is advice able in all cases of reactive depression. It is most important for the patient to gain an insight into why he is so depressed. This will help to prevent further episodes. If he becomes so severely depressed as to contemplate suicide, he should be given a series of electric shock treatments to help him over his depression.

Delayed Grief Reaction . When some loved one dies, it is perfectly natural to weep. Failure to grieve may indicate some personality disturbance that should be corrected. These peculiar feelings are often a sign that all is not well. A normal amount of grief is nature’s way of releasing tensions. Abnormal reactions should be discussed with someone who understands the mechanism of the human mind, so that a more normal response will develop. This may help to avert a complete mental breakdown in future.

Attempted suicide. Some people threaten to commit suicide mainly to see how the family will react. They may never actually carry this out, but such threats should always be taken seriously, for they indicate a troubled mind. Also the time may come when they may become depressed enough to carry it out. Remember, the person who never smiles is always depressed. Strangely, the greatest risk is when he appears taking a turn for the better. This may be the moment when he plans to end his life.

Some of the important causes of depression are Inheritance, Changes in brain structures or brain function, Pessimistic attitude, Stress (home, work or school), Major diseases (cancer, heart attack etc.), Hormonal disorders, Relationship problems, Financial problems, Menstrual cycle changes, Menopause, Bereavement.

The most important symptoms of depression are sadness, loss of energy, lack of interest in the world around and fatigue. A disturbed sleep is the also the cause of the depression. Other symptoms of depression are loss of appetite, giddiness, itching, nausea, agitation, irritability, impotence or frigidity, constipation, aches and pains all over the body, lack of concentration. Severe depression may be characterized by low body temperature, low blood pressure, hot flushes and shivering.

The diet of a person suffering from depression should be free from tea, coffee, alcohol, chocolate, colas, all white flour products, sugar, food colorings, chemical additives, white rice, and strong condiments.




Diarrhea is not a disease in itself. It is a disorder that may arise from many different causes. The most important cause of diarrhea is the contaminated food. One or two loose watery stools may not be significant. Large, loose stools may drain much of the essential water from the body. Such fluids must be replaced as soon as possible. Diarrhea in babies and small children can be dangerous. Infants are easily dehydrated, and they are not able to tell how they feel

Diarrhea is often seen in people who take excessive amounts of laxatives. Some people are allergic to certain substances or common foods. Some people have frequent loose stools for years without any other evidence of disease. Some people develop diarrhea when under severe emotional strain. Excess alcohol consumption; laxatives; caffeine are also known to cause diarrhea. Some medicines can cause diarrhea, such as antibiotics (tetracycline, clyndamycin, penicillin). Blood or mucus in the stool is a sign of infection or parasites.

Diarrhea is a means to excrete bacteria or viruses that might have ingested by eating bad food. Therefore, it is not good idea to stop diarrhea too quickly. However, diarrhea does not work sometimes and if goes on for several days, dehydration and loss of important nutrients may occur which can be dangerous especially in children.

Diarrhea is characterized by frequent, watery stools, often accompanied by stomach cramps, abdominal pain and gas. Diarrhea may be of various colors and contain mucous, blood or pus.



Dry skin

Dry skin appears due to low level of sebum. Dry skin is very sensitive. Dry skin cannot retain the moisture therefore it appears parched It usually feels "tight" and uncomfortable after washing unless some type of moisturizer or skin cream is applied. Chapping and cracking are signs of extremely dry, dehydrated skin.

Dryness is increased by wind, extremes of temperature and air-conditioning, dry skin is tightly drawn over the bones. It looks dull, especially on the cheeks and around the eyes. Dry skin can be a sign of hypothyroidism. Serious skin complications can arise for people with diabetes. Certain drugs, including diuretics, antispasmodics, and antihistamines, can also lead to dry skin.

The oil glands do not supply enough oil the skin. As a result, the skin becomes dehydrated. Skin gets exposed to the elements especially in winter. Dry skin could be due to a genetic condition, Poor diet, Nutritional deficiencies, especially deficiencies of vitamin A and B vitamins, can also contribute to dry skin.

Environmental factors such as exposure to sun, wind, cold, chemicals, or cosmetics, or excessive bathing with harsh soaps can also cause dry skin. Conditions such as dermatitis, eczema, psoriasis, or seborrhea also are the cause of the dry skin.



Ear Infection

Ear Infection occur mostly due to bad cold. Sometimes the child will refuse to eat and may pull his ear. Never neglect a bad ear. Most of the cases of deafness can be due to ear infections in the early years.

Many young children are partially deaf because of blows they have received on the side of the head. These blows can easily damage the delicate hearing mechanism. Sometimes children stuff some foreign object into the ear canal and then forget all about it. After a few days the child may complain of earache and there may be foul discharge.

During childhood, ear infections occur after measles, chicken pox, mumps, or the common cold. Chronic tonsillitis and other infections may spread to the Eustachian tube and cause pus to accumulate in the middle ear cavity, which is known as otitis media.

Wax normally protects the ear canal from infection and injury, but when too much wax is present it should be gently removed. Do not attempt to dig the wax out yourself. You may puncture the drum and produce a middle ear infection, which might lead to permanent loss of hearing.

Sometimes the ear canal becomes badly swollen and infected particularly after prolonged swimming. This is known as otitis externa. There is severe pain and there may be tender lymph nodes behind the ear and in the neck.

Older people with nerve deafness often complain of ringing in the ears. Nerve deafness may also arise from hardening of the arteries. As the condition progresses, the patient may not be able to distinguish between such common sounds as the ringing of the doorbell, the tickling of the watch, or the sound of the telephone.

Other causes of nerve deafness arise from skull fractures following falls and traffic accidents, especially if it involved auditory, or hearing nerve, or the blood vessels leading to the inner ear.



Eye Care

A young child may complain about many things but he rarely complains about his eyes. His vision may be blurred, and he may even see double but he does not know much about it. Proper eye care should begin even before the child is born. Young children should always be protected against strong sunlight, for this may damage the sensitive nerves of the eye. Looking at the sun without proper protection is also harmful.

Many things can occur with the eyes of a growing child. Parents must observe the following signs:

Eye troubles in children are often due to using the eyes in a poor light. The child’s eyelids may be red and swollen and watering more than usual. Indirect lighting is best, both at home, at school, or at work. Light colored walls and ceilings are best because they diffuse the light in all directions.

Do not allow your child to watch movies or television for long periods of time, as this puts strain upon the eyes and nervous system. When a small speck of dirt gets into the eye, there is instant feeling of pain and tears from the eyes. The areas around the eye are easily injured by a blow or due to other reason. Soon the skin around the eye turns black because many of the smaller blood vessels under the skin have been torn. Infections of the eyelids are usually due to some germs.



Food poisoning

Food poisoning, also known as acute gastroenteritis, is an acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small bowel. It is caused in various ways, one of which is excessive indulgence in alcohol. Some people are allergic to certain items of food, which may act poison to them.

Food poisoning usually begins suddenly with a feeling of nausea and abdominal cramps, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, and weakness. Rectal burning may be intense, and the stools may contain blood and mucus. All of this loss of fluid from the bowel may result in severe dehydration and shock. There is pain in the abdomen, with some distension, especially in the lower area.

Germs cause the worst attacks of food poisoning. Foods used at picnics, in restaurants, and at home are easily contaminated by toxins or poisonous substances, produced by staphylococcus bacteria. Foods most commonly that cause food poisoning are various meats, fish, pastes, custards, cream filled pastry, milk, ad many different kinds of deserts.

The trouble seems to arise from skin infections on the hands of those who handle food. Within two or three hours after taking this type of contaminated food, the patient suffers from severe abdominal cramps, followed by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, often resulting in severe prostration and shock. Most of these attacks only last a few hours and are followed by complete recovery. Severe poisoning may be caused by different types of fish.




Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, sometimes accompanied by more or less severe constitutional manifestations.
The predisposing causes are: The various forms of anemia, Malnutrition, Chronic diseases, not only of the stomach but also of the other organs, recovery from acute diseases.
The exciting causes of gastritis are:
Diet, such as improper food; too hot or too cold food or drink; spoiled or too highly seasoned foods, canned goods and spoiled meats. To be a little more explicit. The poisoning will produce gastric fever with typhoid and septic symptoms. Drugs including the gases.

There are four stages of the disease: simple Acute, Chronic, Ulcerative and Suppurative. The mind forms, as seen through gastric fistulae, present the following: Red, dry, ecchymosed spots; serum mixed with an increased mucus, escaped leucocytes, desquamated epithelium; erosions which bleed; later the mucous membrane becomes swollen, softened and covered with mucus and pus; the solitary lymph follicle swollen and infiltrated; small abscesses form, rupture and become ulcers; the gastric tubules filled with dead epithelium cells. Necrosis of the coats with sloughing and perforation may follow in the cases in which drugs are the cause.

Uneasiness, distress, distension, and pain is dull, sharp, burning, drawing, pulsating, and sticking in character. Nausea and vomiting is also present. Vomiting is sour, bitter or sweet. The vomiting may contain food in all degrees of digestion, in the toxic form, poison may be found in the vomit, shreds of mucous membrane, blood and pus. The tongue may be clean or coated.

In the toxic form not only the tongue but the whole mucous membrane of the mouth may be discolored. In the chronic variety, the wall of the stomach may be thickened. There is a feeling of fullness in the abdomen. Prolonged illness results in loss of weight. In a few cases a small ulcer may be present which is not seen on X- ray. People with pernicious anemia may suffer from atrophic gastritis due to loss of the “intrinsic” factor, which is normally present in the gastric juice.

The acute form is easily diagnosed by the cause; vomiting which gives relief; temperature with sudden rise and sudden fall; pain and tenderness.

The chronic form by the fact that poison has been taken. An inspection of the mouth and pharynx will help; in other cases, a chemical examination of the stomach contents, the vomit and even the urine will be necessary.

In the acute, suppurative form a positive diagnosis is more difficult to make, especially in the diffuse variety, but the pus cells assist. A gastric abscess however is more easily diagnosed by the history of the case and the presence of a fluctuating tremor.



Hair Care

Our hormones help in the development of hair that appears after puberty. The male hormone, testosterone, governs beard, body hair and hair in the armpits. The female hormone, estrogen, generally prevents hair growth on the chin and encourages it to grow on the head. Occasionally women develop signs of hair loss or baldness when estrogen levels drop. When the amount of hair lost grows higher than the normal hair fall that takes place due to the change in environment, increasing age or growth of new hairs, it is referred to as hair loss problem that needs special care. Improper or poor diet, exposure to a lot of chemicals or cosmetics, hormonal imbalance, stress, anxiety and mental tension are some causes of hair loss. Partial or complete loss of the hair on the scalp is common among men. Premature baldness is found in certain families. Thinning of the hair is often seen in older women, but complete baldness in the female is fortunately rare. Temporary baldness may occur following a fever or some prolonged illness. The hair usually returns after the patient has recovered from the illness.

In children falling of hair occurs due to many reasons such as severe headache, dim eyesight, after a prolonged illness, use of different shampoos and soaps, after a severe head injury and a familial tendency. Generally it is seen that if the parents have thin hair and early loss of hair in their life so is their children.

The healthy condition of the hair depends, on the intake of sufficient amounts of essential nutrients in the daily diet. Persons with a tendency to lose hair should take a well-balanced and correct diet, made up of foods, which, in combination, should supply all the essential nutrients. It has been found that a diet, which contains large quantities of seeds, nuts, grains, vegetables and fruits, would provide adequate amounts of all the essential nutrients.



Hair Removal

We spend more time on our hair than on any other portion of our body. We do several procedures to make them look beautiful and healthy. Many of us have too little hair, others have too much in the wrong places. Ingrown hairs are also common around the upper, inner thigh.

Excessive hair growth on the face is particularly troublesome to some women. This may be the result of some hormonal disturbances. Tumors arising in the ovaries, adrenal glands and other endocrine organs have sometimes contributed to this problem. But in most neither cases there is nor specific cause for excessive growth of hair. Hair growth is directly related to estrogen levels, hormones and ancestry.

In today's society facial and body hair have become increasingly unwelcome. These unwanted hairs disturbs the beauty of the women. They have become curious to remove them. There are many procedures for the removal of these unwanted hairs. Excessive hair on the face can be removed by electrolysis, but this is a tedious and somewhat expensive process. Laser is normally a permanent method of hair removal, although there are no 100% guarantees. It doesn't work very well on darker skins or on lighter hair. Essentially the hair that responds best to laser treatment is dark, thick hair on lighter skin.




Hangovers are caused by drinking too much alcohol at one time, and are dependent on each person’s tolerance level for alcohol. It can be based on height, weight, and the genetics of a person. Hangover symptoms last only about 24 hours.

The main symptom of a hangover is dehydration and drinking plenty of water can minimize. A headache is a symptom of dehydration and may be relieved by drinking water. Drinking too much alcohol decreases the essential nutrients of the body such as vitamins, minerals, water, and blood sugar.

Some of the important symptoms of hangover are headache, nausea, intestinal upset, and perhaps diarrhea, aches in the muscles and joints, and fatigue. Some alcohol is worse than others - Brandy, red wine, rum, whisky, white wine, gin and vodka

Some alcoholics drink more or less steadily, others drink only when under stress or anxiety. Some drink in excess and destroy themselves rapidly. Alcohol often destroys the liver, causing hepatic cirrhosis. It produces gastritis or inflammation of the stomach. Their effect upon the brain is even more marked. Alcohol makes the heart weak and flabby. Some alcoholics may develop the symptoms of peripheral neuritis in which the nerves become weakened and deteriorated. Alcohol in any form may cause intoxication if enough has been taken. It is responsible for many deaths. The alcoholic who is dead drunk can be allowed to sleep off his stupor. This may one or two days. But the man who is half drunk is often violent, and may not be restrained. Young people should avoid the use of alcohol in any form. Many people suffer from a severe headache due to hangover after taking large quantities of alcohol. Alcohol is toxic to the tissues and directly irritates the meninges and coverings of the brain, thus causing pain in the head. The alcohol also dilates the arteries in the brain, and this produces a pain. The best treatment for this type of headache is to avoid the excessive use of alcohol in any form.




Headache is the most common of all nervous complaints. The causes are varied and so also its mode of onset, duration, intensity and other conditions associated with it.

Migraine is clearly a hereditary condition, and the inheritance is passed down through the females rather than the males. Nervous abnormalities of the female generative organs are the most frequent of the exciting causes. Eye strain; shock; grief; worry; gastro-intestinal irregularities; mental emotions, i.e., anger, fear, love, jealously and remorse may cause migraine at one time and hysteria at another.

Symptoms of headache may be varied and these may be blurring of visions, flashes of light, balls of fire, etc.; chilliness; flashes of heat; dizziness; depression or excitation; confusion of ideas; numbness, etc. then comes the pain which is usually one sided, and may be any or all sensations, sharp or dull, continuous or intermittent, etc. There may or may not be tenderness of the affected part.

In one sided headache the face may be deathly pale or scarlet red; the veins of the affected side are distended; there are nausea and vomiting in the majority of cases, in some of which the pains are relieved by the vomiting, others are not; some are relieved by a good night’s rest, while others are always worse after sleep. The average duration of an attack is about twenty-four hours, but suffer as long as seventy-two hours. Many patients have lived, to suffer from the disease, for fifty years. On the other hand, many are permanently cured. The time needed to complete the cure will depend upon your ability to determine the tissue or organ, which is the cause of the disease, and the faithfulness with which the patient will follow directions.

Tension headache is similar to the migraine headache but the location of the pain may be different and the cause is more obvious. Prolonged tension often seems to produce a spasm of the muscles in the back of the neck. This muscle spasm draws the tissues over the surface of the cranium very tight, so that the pain is felt not only in the back of the neck but also over the top and front of the head. Usually there is no nausea, vomiting or flashing of lights. Some people have a tendency to develop a headache when the blood pressure rises beyond the normal level.




Heartburn is felt as a burning sensation behind the sternum or in the epigastrium. This is probably the result of regurgitation of gastric contents into the esophagus and irritation by the hyperacid contents causing burning sensation behind the sternum. This is associated with water brash and pyrosis.

Acidity cause reflex hyper secretion of alkaline saliva, which collects in the esophagus and is subsequently regurgitated in to the mouth without any effort for vomiting. This is commonly associated with duodenal ulcer.

Some people are more susceptible than others to acidity and heartburn as they have problem in digesting some foods.

Normally the stomach secretes an acid, which is essential for the digestion. This acid helps in the breakdown of the food. When there is excessive secretion of this acid by the stomach it results in heartburn.

Pregnant women suffer from heartburn as the uterus presses on the digestive tract as the fetus grows. Increased acidity with regurgitation causes some amount of oesophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus), which increases the sensitiveness. Acidity causes reflex increased secretion of alkaline saliva, which accumulates in the esophagus and is rushed into the mouth without any sensation of vomiting.




Hemorrhoids or piles are due to swelling or enlargement of the veins that supply the rectal outlet of the body. This painful condition is often complicated by localized inflammation and bleeding, and also thrombosis in many cases. People who suffer from constipation and other bowel disorders are more likely to develop hemorrhoids. Piles are also more common in pregnancy, and in conditions affecting the liver and upper bowel.
There are two types of hemorrhoids:

External hemorrhoids are more common, for they lie outside the anorectal junction.

Internal hemorrhoids are soft and dark colored, and usually irregular in shape. When very large, they may protrude through the anus. Straining at the stool may bring them down. This may be followed by strangulation of the hemorrhoids with severe pain.
These may be from:

Hemorrhoids are the most common cause of the rectal bleeding. The blood is bright red and may be noted on the toilet paper, and also covering the surface of the stool or dripping into the toilet bowl after the stool is passed. However because cancer of the rectum may possibly also be present, a thorough examination should be done in all cases of hemorrhoids.

Small hemorrhoids that cause only slight bleeding may not require any treatment. The patient should take at least six to eight glasses of water a day. The diet should be rich in fruits and vegetables. He should avoid straining at stool. Itching of the anus may also be present.




Before birth the testicles are formed within the body close to the kidneys. As the fetus grows, these glands move down to the groin and pass into the scrotum, carrying with them the spermatic cord, along with blood vessels and nerves. Failure to descend is known as undescended testicles. Often the channel through which the testis comes down fails to close, so that loops of bowel or omentum may find their way into the scrotum on one or both sides. This is known as indirect inguinal hernia.

Weakness in the abdominal wall may produce a similar result, known as a direct inguinal hernia. Both conditions may occur in the male.

A femoral hernia is usually more common in the female.

Strangulated hernia occurs when a portion of the bowel becomes caught in the hernial sac, resulting in a strangulated hernia. This can be very serious, and may lead to complete intestinal obstruction and even severe peritonitis.

Umbilical hernia occurs when a small protrusion may be visible at or above the umbilicus, which gives an impulse on coughing. It is usually congenital and felt as a ring like opening. It may be acquired also when there is much distension of the abdominal wall as in ascitis, frequent pregnancy or great obesity.

Hernias are caused by a weakened area in the body to aging, surgery or an unusually large opening in the passage between the abdomen and the genitals that does not close completely before birth. Some athletes develop a hernia when repeated twisting and turning is involved.

Sometimes a portion of the stomach is located in the chest. This is known as hiatus hernia, or diaphragmatic hernia. Fullness of the stomach or pressure on the abdomen may cause part of the stomach to move up into the chest. In such cases there is often a feeling of distress, and there may also be bleeding at times.

Hiatus hernia may develop in people of all ages and both sexes, although it is considered to be a condition of middle age. In fact, the majority of otherwise normal people past the age of 50 have small hiatus hernia.




Hypertension is a condition caused by an increase in the blood pressure. As the blood flows through blood vessels in the human body, it exerts pressure against the walls of the vessels. As the heart contracts in its cycle of pumping blood, blood pressure reaches its highest level. This is called systolic blood pressure. The blood pressure reaches its lowest point when the heart is at rest or is released. This is called diastolic blood pressure. Normal blood pressure is around 120/80 mm of Hg (Mercury) for a healthy person. There is no safe limit beyond normal. Any value other than normal should be a reason for taking care.

If continuously, the systolic and diastolic pressure excelled the limit of 140/90, a human being is said to have high blood pressure. He needs medical care values higher than 160/95 are placed in the danger zone.

Types of hypertension:
There are different types of hypertension depending upon the causes; -




Many people are sufferred with bouts of indigestion. Indigestion occurs due to disordered stomach, which is often irritated by improper foods. Nervous problems are another common cause of gas and indigestion.

People with indigestion presents with a number of different symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, upper abdominal pain and flatulence or a sense of fullness in the abdomen after eating food. These symptoms often come on after eating too rapidly or not chewing properly.

Emotional upsets and severe mental strain are also common cause of gas and indigestion. Constipation may also interfere the normal process of digestion and often causes gas and abdominal pain.

Certain foods may cause trouble. Fried foods often cause gas and abdominal discomfort. Excessive smoking is another cause of trouble. many nervous individuals rapidly gulp down their food and swallow excessive amounts of air as well. Carbonated drinks release a lot of carbon dioxide gas which may produce a sense of fullness in the stomach.

Indigestion can be caused due to improper eating habits, eating a lot of fried foods, meat, sweets, heavy foods and overeating, eating incompatible food items, eating at irregular times, eating before the last meal is fully digested, eating very quickly or mixing too many foods in one meal, consuming too much tea, coffee and alcohol, smoking, staying up late, emotional disturbances (stress, grief, anxiety), taking drugs like antibiotics, painkillers and steroids.




Inability to go to sleep or to get sleep for a period insufficient for the needs of an individual is known as insomnia. None of us can do without sleep. An infant sleeps 14 to 18 hours a day. This period is slowly reduced. An adult may be happy with 7 to 8 hours of sleep every night. There are people who require 5 hours or even 4 hours of sleep in 24 hours.

Sleep has a definite purpose and that is why all mammals sleep. Lack of sleep apparently does not cause any physical harm. But anyone who gets less than his normal sleep experiences a decrease of efficiency and concentration.

In old age, sleep normally becomes fitful. It is good to regulate sleeping hours. One should go to bed at a fixed time. The human body maintains a 24-hour cycle. During this cycle, the body temperature rises and falls at fixed times. In the middle of the night, the body temperature comes down. In the afternoon, it reaches its maximum. It is comfortable to be sleeping when the body temperature is at its lowest. If someone is compelled to be awake by the circumstances at his time, he would not feel physically and mentally at his best.

The most common cause of insomnia is worry; the other is depression. Environmental disturbances also cause lack of sleep. Loss of sleep often results in fatigue and quickly impairs a person’s normal judgment. The higher centers of the brain are the first to show the effects of overwork and anxiety. Such a person may become depressed, losing all interest in life and burdened with a sense of impending death. Unreasonable fears now arise to the surface of his mind, causing all kinds of anxiety and distress, as well sensation of acute pain.

Sleeping pills should be avoided. Sleeping pills taken over a long period disturb the second phase of the normal sleep, the rapid eye movement phase and thus cause harm to the person consuming them. Moreover, the effect of the drugs may last beyond the normal time for waking up and thus cause a reduction in efficiency and concentration. Sleeping pills mixed with alcohol can even be fatal. Patient should practice some technique to relax. Yoga can help or listening to music.




Itching a an unpleasant sensation which we attempt to relieve by scratching. A certain amount of mild itching is normal for everyone. It becomes serious only when it is persistent. Many conditions lead to itching. These include insect bites, hives, contact dermatitis, food allergies and heat rash.

Other causes of itchiing may be diabetes, uraemia, jaundice, pregnancy, drug allergies and various types of nervous conditions. Constant scratching may produce swellings in the skin with deep scratch marks and small ulcers into which germs have found their way.

Itching due to drug reactions are common following the use of certain medicines such as, aspirin, phenobarbital, penicillin and many others. Medicines applied to the skin may also cause certain amount of itching. Some people are allergic to nylon, others to wool and still others to dyes and various other materials of the cloth.

Prickly heat or heat rash is an irritating eruption on the skin due to obstruction of the sweat glands over certain areas of the body. In this condition many small sized swellings occur in the skin, accompnaied by severe itching. The areas most involved are the chest, back, waistline, armpits and groins.

When two skin surfaces are rub together such as under the breasts or between the thighs, one or both surfaces may become red and irritated. This gives rise to infections. Burning and itchint then follow, especially in the armpits around the anus, between the fingers and the toes, and the groins.

Scabies is an intense form of itching caused by an itchmite. It mostly occurs in war conditions or other forms of the disaster, when large number of people are displaced from their homes and crowded together under unhygeinic conditions. The itching is usually worse at night. Often it involves the genital areas as the well as the spaces between the fingers, the front surface of the wrists, around the elbows, under the armpits, around the nipples, along the belt line and on the lower part of the buttocks.

Contact dermatitis is an infammation of the skin due to contact with some particular substance to which an individual may be sensitive. Any part of the body may be affected, but certain parts are more likely to be involved. These include the sex areas, and exposed areas as the eyelids, forearms, face and neck.



Leg Pains

Pain in legs, coming on after walking a moderate distance often arises from narrowing of the blood vessels leading to these areas. If the vessel becomes completely blocked, gangrene may result and the toes become dark and cold. This is most frequently seen in cases of uncontrolled diabetes.

People with varicose veins suffer from swelling of the veins, followed by muscle cramps and a tired feeling in the legs behind the knees. In some cases the skin over the lower part of the leg may break down, forming a large, ugly ulcer, which is often painful.

Leg cramps can occur due to running, walking, riding a bike, standing up, even sleeping. While every lower-leg injury has its specific biomechanical causes, all are rooted in tight calf muscles and relative weakness in the front leg muscles. This is very, very common in runners, since running tends to exercise the calf muscles more than those in the front.

Anterior shin splints is defined as the pain in the front and outer edge of your legs. The main cause of shin splints is tight calf muscles and weak shin muscles, the injury may have been further aggravated by a variety of factors. Shin splints are very common among beginning runners.

Posterior shin splint may be defined as the pain on the inner side of your leg, right where the calf muscle meets the big shinbone. The cause of this may be straining of a muscle that gives some support to the arch of your foot.

Achilles Tendinitis may be defined as the pain in the lower calf along the Achilles tendon, the cord connecting the heel to the calf muscle. The main cause of this may be extra pulling of the tendon, which causes a lot of pain in legs.



Liver Care

The liver is the largest single gland in the body. It is located on the right side of the abdomen under the lower ribs and just under the diaphragm which divides the chest from the abdomen. Liver performs a number of important functions in the body. When the liver is healthy it works very smoothly. But the liver can be affected by a number of serious disorders, such as virus infections, parasites, disburtances of the circulation, stone formation in the bile ducts, injuries due to poisonous substances, and various kinds of tumours.

Most of the foods we eat are stored in the liver, after having been digested and absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The liver has another very important function, that of detoxifying or destroying many harmful poisons and even certain medicines that are taken into the body for other purposes. When the liver is sick these functions are impaired and soon the whole body suffers.

Not only does the liver store food materials, it also produces bile, a golden-yellowish liquid that is needed for the absorption of fat from the intestine. Another important substance produced in the liver is cholesterol, part of which passes into the bile. It may even form stones in the bile ducts and gall bladder under certain conditions. Another important component is prothrombin, which is needed for the clotting of the blood. Urea, an important component of the urine, is also produced in the liver. The production of all these substances may be changed under certain disease conditions.

Jaundice is a disease marked by a yellow discolouration in the skin or in the whites of the eye. This is due to excessive amount of bile in the blood stream. Hepatitis is an acute inflammation of the liver caused by some infectious or toxic agent. The skin may be discoloured and the whites of the eyes turn yellow. Various substances and organisms may be responsible for hepatitis, including germs, viruses, and toxic agents.

Another important disease of the liver is the cirrhosis of the liver. It is mostly associated with alcoholism. Poor nutrition may be responsible for this condition also. In some cases chronic poisoning with industrial fluids, such as carbon tetrachloride, may also play a part. In the early stages of the disease there may be frequent attacks of gas and indigestion, with occassional nausea and vomiting and with abdominal pain and weight loss.

Cancer may occur in almost any organ of the body. When it begins in the stomach or large bowel, the liver may soon be involved mainly because the blood flows toward the liver from all the digestive organs including the pancreas and gall bladder. This is known as metastatic carcinoma.




Malaria is one of the most widespread diseases in the world. Hundreds of millions of people are affected by malaria, of which there are three main types: vivax, falciparum, and malariae. When the female of this particular species bites a patient who has malaria, she draws up a small quantity of blood containing the parasites. These parasites then pass through several stages of development within the mosquito’s body, and finally find their way to its salivary glands. About ten days after the mosquito has injected these parasites into a person’s blood stream. Most of them are now within the bred blood cells of the victim.

Many of the parasites are destroyed by the defense system of the body, particularly by the white blood cells in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. But enough of them survive to cause plenty of trouble.

During the acute attack of malaria, the patient complains of fever, weakness, headache, and chilling sensations. In more severe cases, the attack begins abruptly with shaking chills, fever, and sweating. Between the paroxysms, the patient usually feels miserable and runs a low-grade fever. The temperature may run to 104 0F., and the patient may complain of severe headache, and may manifest drowsiness, delirium, and confusion.

With this serious complication the patient suffers from jaundice, anemia, severe prostration, and shock.




The female reproductive time of life begins at adolescence in the early teens and continues until the end of the menopause in the mid or late forties. Most women during their reproductive period have a regular monthly cycle, usually occurring every four weeks except during pregnancy.

In the middle or late forties, many women suddenly become aware of increased nervous tension, menstrual disturbances, hot flashes, chilly feelings, excitability, easy fatigue, depression, crying spells, sleeplessness, palpitation, dizziness, headaches, numbness and tingling and other annoying symptoms. A woman experiencing these symptoms feel miserable through no fault of her own. This entire problem arises due to the non-production of the estrogen hormone from the ovaries.

This natural phenomenon in life starts many years before menopause symptoms actually begin to show. Hormone levels can fluctuate for several years before eventually becoming so low that the endometrium becomes thin and does not bleed. Normally the ovaries start to slow the production of hormones like estrogen, testosterone and progesterone.

Low estrogen levels may also lead to changes in collagen production, affecting hair, nails, skin and tendons. The skin may become dryer, thinner, less elastic; more prone to bruising and skin itching may occur.

Anything that interferes with the normal functions of the ovaries may bring on these problems. If the ovaries have to be removed by surgery because of some disease, the same thing will occur soon after the operation. Menopause is not a disease. It is a natural process in a woman's life. It depends on a woman how she views this time of her life. This can have a lot to do with how frequent and severe her symptoms are. If menopause is viewed, as the end of youth and sexuality, this time will be much more difficult than if it is viewed as the next, natural phase of life. With a proper diet, nutritional supplements, and exercise, most of the unpleasant side effects of menopause can be minimized, if not eliminated.

The average age of the natural menopause is 51 years, but can occur much earlier or later. Menopause occurring before the age of 45 is called early menopause and before the age of 40 is premature menopause. Perimenopause is the stage from the beginning of menopausal symptoms to the post menopause.

Post menopause is the time following the last period, and is usually defined as more than 12 months with no periods in someone with intact ovaries, or immediately following surgery if the ovaries have been removed.




Regular monthly bleeding or menstruation occurs in all women from adolescence to the end of the menopausal change of life. Just before menstruation some women become nervous and irritable and suffer from depression, headaches, fullness in the breasts, and swelling in the lower extremities. This may be due to increased hormone activity from the adrenal glands during the latter part of the menstrual cycle, causing retention of sodium and water in the tissues.

Some mild discomfort is to be expected at the beginning of menstruation. If there is severe pain it might be due to some abnormality that should be corrected. Certain infections, such as syphilis, gonorrhea or tuberculosis may sometimes cause pelvic pain, which may be aggravated during menstruation. Abnormal positions of the uterus may also lead to menstrual pain or discomfort. Other causes for menstrual pain may be endometriosis and fibroids.

During menstruation there is an imbalance in hormones and brain activity, and it is thought that too much estrogen, uneven levels of progesterone and an inability to fight with hormone changes are main causes of premenstrual syndrome.

Some women also have a slight show of blood on the day of ovulation, midway between the regular menstrual periods. This is not abnormal. Malignant tumors of the uterus and cervix may also result in vaginal bleeding. Intermittent spotting may be due to cervical polyp, which is common in women over forty years of age. Endometriosis may also cause heavy or painful bleeding.

Amenorrhoea or stoppage of menstrual flow is natural during pregnancy and at the menopause, but abnormal at any other time. It denotes a debilitated and devitalized condition of the body. The main causes for this condition are anemia, worry, grief, fright, or other serious emotional disturbances; malformation of the womb; tuberculosis; displacement of the womb; and debility, especially after a serious illness.

Irregular periods can occur in several conditions like thyroid problems, obesity, iron deficiency, diabetes, drastic weight loss, excessive exercising or stress. Changing contraceptive pills, and low dose pills may also interfere with the normal menstrual pattern. Irregular periods can also delay in conceiving.




Mumps is an acute specific infection of the salivary glands especially of the parotids sometimes submandibular and sublingual glands also; occasionally the latter glands are affected first.

The most affected are the children or young adults of both sexes often living in a school or a barrack and the disease spreads rapidly from one person to another in close contact by droplets. This virus reaches the salivary glands by bloody or lymphatic because mumps is a systemic disease and may cause in addition, inflammation of the meninges, brain, pancreas and the gonads. The disease is more prevalent in winter and spring months.

The affected parotid glands and the surrounding tissues become hyperemic and edematous, the acinar cells disintegrate with round cell infiltration but later on, heal completely without any scarring.

Testes when involved have much edema, perivascular infiltration with lymphocytes, localized hemorrhage, destruction of the germinal epithelia and blocking of the tubules with cellular debris. Only certain localized areas are affected, other parts remain unaffected.

The disease often starts insidiously with swelling of one parotid gland; the other being involved a day or two after. These become markedly tense and tender but the skin is not involved. The inflammation often spreads to sub maxillary and sublingual glands, the maximum being reached in three days. Mainly the interstitial and the periglandular tissues are involved and the swelling slowly subsides without suppuration. Sometimes relapses may occur after an interval of a few days, the parotids being inflamed again.

The temperature rises to 101 0F. or more and continues for 3 to 4 days. During the period, the jaws are stiff and mastication is painful and difficult; salivation is sometimes marked. Pulse is usually slow. Blood shows slight initial leucopenia followed by marked lymphocytosis. The urine shows slight albuminuria. The serum amylase is increased in most patients in the first 3 to 4 days. Spleen may be just palpable.

Complications :




The pancreas is a large digestive organ lying behind the stomach and across the back portion of the abdomen. This gland is mostly related with the normal processes of digestion through the pancreatic enzymes. Pancreas secretes two hormones, insulin and glucagons. Insulin plays an important part in the metabolism of the body. It is produced by the beta cells. The alpha cells of the pancreas produce glucagon.

Some people are unable to produce enough insulin to meet their own needs. Due to insufficient insulin, their blood sugar or glucose rises to a high level, and the cells of the body do not receive their normal supply of nourishment. The excess of urine then appears in the urine. This condition is known as diabetes. This is a strange, complex condition. If it continues for a long time, the patient becomes weaker and dies due to malnutrition.

There are two types of Diabetes, Type I and type II, in type I, the pancreas produces no insulin whatsoever, therefore the patient depends on insulin injection, to control the glucose, this type of diabetes affects people less than 30 years old, and develops when antibodies, kill cells of the pancreas those producing insulin. Type II diabetes, develops on people 30 years of age and older, and is caused by the insufficient or ineffective production of insulin, this type of diabetes can be controlled with drugs and proper diet.

In severe uncontrolled diabetes the patient suffers from extreme thirst. He also loses weight. He also passes large quantities of urine. This lowers his resistance to infections. The patient may also suffer from chronic skin trouble and constant fatigue. Any injury heals slowly. The younger the patient, the more serious the disease.

Diabetic patients must realize that they have a disorder, which continues for lifetime. In majority of cases there is no cure for this disease. During pregnancy diabetes can be serious. Diabetic babies always weigh more than normal. All pregnant women should have a blood sugar test taken two hours after a normal meal.

Older people tend to gain weight and they develop a mild form of diabetes because of a strain on the pancreas. Controlling the weight can help to control the diabetes.

Family history is important in diabetes. All children with a family history of diabetes should be carefully checked. Diabetic patients are more prone to infections of the skin, such as boils, carbuncles and itching. Hardening of the arteries occurs much more frequently in diabetic patients. Heart attacks are also more common in the diabetic patients. Cataracts occur more frequently in older diabetics and also in patients who have had diabetes for five years or longer.




It is very important to watch weight, not allowing oneself to become too thin or to fat, but trying to remain ideal. Most youngsters in their teens, if they are healthy and active, are fairly close to the ideal weight for their size and age. Changes often come in the late twenties, reducing a person’s physical fitness. Sluggish habits begin to develop as the individual loses his skill in running, swimming or healthy activities.

When greater quantities of energy (in the form of food) enter the body than are expended., the body weight increases. Therefore, obesity is caused by excess energy input over energy output. In other words, extra weight is due to extra eating. For each 9.3 Calories of excess energy that enters the body, one gram of fat is stored.

Excess energy input occurs only during the development phase of obesity. Once a person has become obese, all that is required to remain obese so that the energy input equals the energy output. For a person to reduce in weight, the input must be less than the output. People with large bones and well-developed muscles may seem somewhat overweigh compared with those of lighter build. But actually the lighter person may carry around more fat. His muscles may be weak and underdeveloped.

How many calories do one need per day. It all depends on a number of things, such as the kind of work one do, age, body build and how active one is. A hard working labourer may require 5,000 calories per day. His wife, who is busy around the house all day, may need 2500 calories. But an office secretary may require only 1800 calories a day. It all depends on how active one is.

About one third of the energy used each day by the normal person goes into muscular activity, and in the laborer, as much as two third or occasionally three fourth is used. Because muscular activity is by far the most important means by which energy is used in the body, it is frequently said that obesity in the otherwise normal person results from too high a ratio of food intake to daily exercise.

Different causes of obesity:
The rate of feeding is normally regulated in proportion to the energy stores in the body. When these stores exceed a normal level for a normal person, feeding is automatically reduced to prevent over storage.

A large number of obesity results from psychogenic factors. The most important psychogenic factor contributing to obesity so the prevalent idea that healthy eating habits require three meals a day and each meal must be filling. Many young children are forced into this habit by their parents. Some people also gain weight during or after stressful situations, such as the death of a parent, a severe illness, or even mental depression. Some people think that eating as a means of relieving tension.

Lesions in the ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus cause an animal to eat excessively and become obese. Such lesions also cause excess insulin production, which in turn increases fat deposition. In addition, many people with hypophysial tumors that develops on the hypothalamus result in progressive obesity.

Obesity definitely runs in families. Furthermore, identical twins usually maintain weight levels within 2 ponds of each other throughout life if they live under similar conditions, or within 5 pounds of each other if their conditions of life differ markedly.

The rate of formation of new fat cells is especially rapid in the first few years of life, and the greater the rate of fat storage, the greater also becomes the number of fat cells. In obese children, the number of fat cells is often as much as three times that in normal children. Therefore it has been observed that over nutrition of children especially in infancy and to a lesser extent during the later years of childhood can lead to a lifetime of obesity.




Worms and other intestinal parasites are found in every part of the world. They are more common in tropical and sub tropical areas and are more common during the rainy season. Most of these worms and parasites enter in the human body either through the mouth or through the skin of the feet.

Round worms, are the giant worms present in the intestines that cause the disease known as ascariasis. It is found in almost all the countries. These worms are off-white in color, are long and thick and are most frequently seen in children. Eggs produced by them are passed in stools. When children play in the soil contaminated with the eggs, they are easily transferred to the mouth via dirty fingers, particularly by children living under unhygienic conditions.

Roundworm eggs may remain alive in the soil for many months. There is always greater danger of contamination where human wastes are used in fertilizing vegetables. Great care must be taken to be sure all foods are thoroughly cleansed and sterilized by cooking before being used.

When the round worm eggs reach the duodenum or small bowel they quickly hatch. The young worms borrow into the intestinal wall and then migrate to the liver and from there to the heart and lungs, producing bronchitis. Later they reach the small intestines again where they develop into mature worms causing nausea and vomiting, loss of weight, fever, nervousness, and irritability. Many patients complain of colicky pains and diarrhea. A mass of writhing worms in the intestines may produce complete obstruction of the bowel.

The adult worms may migrate through the intestinal walls and cause severe peritonitis. They may find their way into other areas, causing appendicitis, gall-bladder trouble, and liver disease. When the worms die, they cause toxic reactions, such as swelling of the face, loss of appetite and severe nervous symptoms.

HOOKWORM: It is a serious disease caused by small worms, which attach themselves to the walls of the intestines. Within the bowel they cause serious bleeding, and poison the patient as well. Hookworm infections are found mainly in warm, moist areas of the tropics, but are also found in some temperate zones.

It is most frequent in rural areas where the soil is loose and sandy where there are improper sanitary facilities. The tiny larval forms passed into the soil via stools enter the body through bare foot causing local itching and inflammation. Then they enter the smaller blood vessels and are carried to the lungs where they make their way to one of the bronchial tubes and then down into the small intestine and finally develop into adult worms. As the worms pass through the lungs they cause severe bronchitis.

Hookworms may live in the body for several years. They feed mainly on the blood. They produce a toxin, which increase the bleeding produced by the bite of the worm.

Patients with hookworm disease appear pale and are weak. They complain of dizziness, ringing in the ears, headache and are easily fatigued. The hair is dry, and the facial expressions dull and apathetic. In severe cases the heart is enlarged, and there may be swelling in all the tissues of the body. Shortness of breath occurs on slightest exertion. Nausea and vomiting are frequent. Children may develop mental retardation and growth is also impaired. Women and men may develop impotency.

PINWORMS: These are small white worms about a quarter of an inch in length. It is also limited to rural areas like other intestinal infections. Children are the most affected but adults may also suffer from this disease.

The adult worms live in the upper part of the colon, feeding on the intestinal contents. Mature female worms store eggs in there body and then migrate out through the colon and rectum to the skin where they lay eggs. These eggs bring on intense itching, causing the patient to scratch in the area around the rectum so that many of the eggs are picked up by the fingers under the nails. From there they are transferred to the mouth and are swallowed. They hatch in the stomach and then migrate down to the lower bowel and in this way the cycle continues.

Some people have slight infections of pinworms without any noticeable symptoms. But others complain of severe itching around the anal areas, a poor appetite, and loss of weight, bed-wetting, sleeplessness, and irritability, grinding of teeth, nausea, and vomiting and even appendicitis in some cases. Pinworms sometimes migrate into the vagina and cause intense itching and inflammation of the female genital tract.

TAPEWORM INFECTIONS : These vary in size. Some tapeworms are only a few inches long; others measure from ten to thirty feet or more in length. Cattle may develop the disease by grazing on grass contaminated with human wastes and thus pick up the eggs of these parasites. Human contract the disease by eating incompletely cooked meat from such animals.

The symptoms vary depending on how many worms are present in the bowel. Tapeworms are present for years without producing any symptoms. Some patients complain of hunger pain, which is sharp and stabbing but immediately relieved by eating. There may be some anemia, which is cured when worms are removed.



Peptic ulcers

Peptic ulcers are among the most common of all conditions affecting the human beings. They occur more frequently. Even young children may suffer from ulcers. In adults, ulcers of the stomach are more common in women, while ulcers of the duodenum, or first part of the bowel, are more common in men.

Peptic ulcer may be defined as the ulcerated, or eroded, area of the mucous membrane that lines all the digestive organs. It occurs most frequently in the lower end of the stomach, first part of the duodenum, or lower part of the esophagus. Ulcers never occur in patients with low levels of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. The greater the acid, there are more chances of ulcer.

Peptic ulcers run in families. Close relatives of patients suffering from this problem are more liable to develop peptic ulcers than relatives of normal people

Emotional tension such as bought on by family quarrels, seems to play a large part in the development of the ulcers. Usually there is only one ulcer, but occasionally several may be present in the same patient. Most ulcers are small, probably less than half an inch across in the duodenum, and perhaps one inch across in the stomach.

The most important symptoms of an ulcer is pain. Pain is sharp and severe. The patient can tell the sore spot by putting his finger on it. In duodenal ulcers the pain comes on when the patient is hungry. In many cases the pain is relieved by eating food, but is aggravated by taking alcohol, condiments and coffee. Patients with stomach ulcers may feel worse after taking food.

Another symptoms associated with ulcer is heartburn, or inflammation of the esophagus. The pain, vomiting and hemorrhages are all aggravated by exertion, both physical and mental, especially emotions like fear and anger. Of the three conditions, pain is the most frequent vomiting, second in frequency, but hemorrhage out ranks them both in clinical important.

A peptic ulcer results due to excessive acid, which is caused by an increased in the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. This strong acid, secreted by the cells lining of the stomach, erodes the inner lining of the stomach.

Dietetic indiscretion such as overeating, taking of heavy meals or highly spiced foods, coffee, alcohol and smoking are the main factors leading to this condition. Other causes are the ingestion of certain drugs, food poisoning, certain infections, gout, emotional disturbances, stress, and nervous tension.

Recent studies indicate that the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori (H-pylori) may be the underlying cause of peptic ulcers. Evidence shows that it is always found in people with ulcers and rarely found in individual who do not suffer from this condition.




Planning for a baby is a lovely experience for both parents. It is part of the real fulfillment of the marriage. These nine months of waiting should be a joyful time, a time of happy planning for the future family.

Pregnancy is the time when nature is doing a most remarkable job, and parents must do their part to keep the would be mother strong and healthy. Pregnancy is not something to be afraid of. Childbirth is far safer than in the old days.

What are the signs of pregnancy?
During pregnancy there is progressive anatomical and physiological changes not only confined to the genital organs but also to all systems of the body.

The first indication will be the missing of your monthly period. At the same time, you may feel unusually cheerful, and your breasts may begin to enlarge. Some women who are tense and nervous may have a slight feeling of nausea in the morning. Even a little vomiting at this early stage is not uncommon or serious. Nature is just making adjustment, and this will soon pass away.

If you miss your next period you should consult a doctor. Certain tests will give positive indication of the pregnancy. You should see your doctor at least once each month for the next four or five months, and after every two weeks until the delivery.

There is enormous growth of the uterus during pregnancy. The uterus, which in non-pregnant state weighs about 50 gm and measures about 7.5 cm in length, at term weighs 900-1000gm and measures 35 cm in length.



Prickly heat

Prickly heator heat rash is an irritating eruption of the skin due to obstruction of the sweat glands over certain areas of the body. In this condition many tiny pin-head-size swellings occur in the skin, accompanied by severe itching. The areas most involved are the chest, back, waistline, armpits, and groins. Infants and overweight persons often suffer from heat rash.

Prickly heat occurs most often in hot, humid conditions, but it can also be developed in cool weather if you are overdressed. The condition usually appears a few days to a few months after exposure to a hot, humid environment. It's most common in infants. Newborns are particularly vulnerable to prickly heat because their sweat ducts are not mature, which makes it easier for the beads of moisture to be trapped.

When a baby gets hot, sweat must evaporate off the skin in order to cool her body down. If you interfere with this process by covering the skin with lots of clothing, plastic pants or even heavy moisturizers, the sweat that needs to get out becomes trapped beneath the surfaceof the skin, resulting in an itchy rash.

Prickly heat usually starts around the neck. If it is bad, it can spread down onto the chest and back and up around the ears and face, but it seldom produces any discomfort for a baby.

Prickly heat is due the sweat glands becoming blocked when the weather is hot and humid. Dead skin cells and bacteria may block the sweat glands, leading to sweat being retained and building up on the skin leading to inflammation, which causes the rash.




This is characterized by formation of erythematous papules or patches with clear margins and covered with white scales, in different parts of the body without any constitutional disturbances.

Psoriasis is more common among young adults of either sex and occasionally a family history is present. This has a seasonal prevalence often appearing in winter and clearing up in summer. The course in chronic, very obstinate and tends to recur after an apparent cure. It disappears without leaving scars or pigmentation. It is not infectious.

The epithelial layer of the skin is thickened and intercappilary processes and papillae are elongated, the horny layer is defective and there is cellular infiltration between the horny cells and blood vessels.

The disease usually starts as a tiny erthymatous papule with thin scales on the top, which may not be visible to the naked eye, but on scraping the surface, dry silver white scales are demonstrated. As more silvery or miraculous scales are heaped up, it gradually enlarges centrifugally may be forming one continuous sheet. The size varies from that of pea to several inches. May be many, of the size of raindrops and bigger rings. Coming together form convulated figures. These may be in only localized patches involving the extensors or the flexures of the body.

The localized patches are usually on the tip of the elbows, over the patella; sometimes the lumbosacral region, calves, forearm and the scalp. The flexures are involved, these being in the axillae, sub mammary folds, umbilicus genitocrural folds and the intergluteal clefts. Sometimes the disease is more generalized and may be associated with constitutional

disturbances. The nails are characteristically pitted or striated with thick masses of scales underneath. Slight itching may be present in some cases. General health is not impaired.

Recent studies have shown that psoriasis involves abnormality in the mechanism in which the skin grows and replaces itself. The abnormality is related to the metabolism of amino acids, the nature’s basic building blocks for the reproduction of cell tissues. Heredity also plays a role in the development of psoriasis, as it tends to occur in families. The factors that aggravate and precipitate the outbreak of these diseases are physical and emotional stress, infections, and use of certain medicines for the treatment of other diseases.




Rheumatism is an inflammatory condition that mainly affects the children and young people in their teens. It is considered to be an allergic condition that mainly attacks the connective tissues of the body, causing joint pains and St. Vitus’ dance due to central nervous irritation and skin lesions. The most serious damage that this disease brings is the damage to the valves of the heart. Certain streptococcus germs present in the throat are sometimes responsible.

The important causes of Rheumatism are:

It usually strikes first in childhood, around eight years of age. The child comes down with a sore throat or cold, followed by an attack of tonsillitis or perhaps scarlet fever. While the patient is recovering, his one or two larger joints become red, swollen, and tender to the touch. There is also soreness in the muscles and tendons, as well as lack of appetite and a feeling of weakness. Tender nodules may appear on the skin, particularly over the joints, such as the elbows. Bleeding from the nose is common in rheumatic fever.

Pains in the chest mean that the inflammation has reached the pericardium and the heart muscle. The child may develop pneumonia, pleurisy and even abdominal pain resembling acute appendicitis. The patient may become fidgety resembling St. Vitus dance. This is more common in girls but also occur in boys. Hand movements may be rapid, jerky, and irregular and the patient has a tendency to drop things from hands. There may be muscle weakness and even some difficulty in chewing and swallowing, particularly in young girls.

In some children the disease may be of a low grade. He is easily fatigued and may not gain weight, as he should. The pulse rate may be rapid and low-grade fever may be present continuing for long periods of time. The child may complain of growing pains. This means an aching pain in the muscles and joints, and in the heart.

Many cases of the disease have no specific lesions. In few cases the synovial membrane of the affected joints are swollen and have some fibrin upon three surfaces. The serous effusion about the joint has been found sterile with few exceptions, but contains fibrin and in most cases leukocytes. The sheets of the tendons may become inflamed, the cartilages eroded and occasionally pus may be found in the exudates. Serious complications such as pericarditis, endocarditis and myocarditis may be present.

General symptoms such as malaise, angina, temperature, laryngitis etc are present. Swelling of the synovial membrane of the various joints, which are tender, red and sore are present. Pain is the most important symptoms, which may be migrating, from one joint to the, from one side of the body to the other.

Cardiac complications usually come suddenly and without warning. The increase of temperature, the palpitation, the dsypnoea, the soreness and pain may be slight. Endocarditis is present in 27 to 35 percent of cases and it comes during the first ten or twelve days of the disease. The disease weakens the muscular walls and dilates the ventricles, especially the left.

A profuse, sour smelling perspiration is also an important symptom. Erythema nodosum, urticaria haemorrhagica and ecchymoses may also occur. Subcutaneous nodules, which are small, painless, firm movable, usually attached to the fascia are also present. They usually appear about the fingers, wrists, patella, ankle and elbow. They are composed of round and spindle shaped cells. They change their place from one joint to the other.

Restlessness, insomnia, delirium, melancholia, convulsions, meningitis and coma may be present. Chorea both accompanies and follows the disease, especially in children.

The urine is scanty and dark red. Urates are deposited after the urine stands for a short time. The chlorides are decreased, sometimes absent.




Ringworm most commonly occurs in children, and may be seen on the trunk, extremities, or scalp. It is highly contagious and easily spreads from one child to another. The skin appears red with a slightly raised border, and the lesions seem to continually expand.

Athlete’s foot is a form of ringworm of the feet. It is particularly common in warmer climates, and in individuals whose feet are constantly wet because of excessive sweating. When the disease is present over a long period of time, the toenails may become thickened.

Ringworm infection occurs in the scalp, the body, the feet, and the nails. Ringworm of the scalp is common among children because of the lack of protective fatty acids in their scalp. The disease spreads on the skin and extends deeper into the hair roots, and also up along the hair. The affected hair becomes dull and breaks off near its root. This leaves bald spots on the scalp

Ringworm is an infectious disease. It spreads from the affected person the person who comes in contact. It can also spread through the articles used by the affected person.




Acne scars and acne pores are the marks of acne even after the acne is cured. These scars are often prominently visible on the face.

Skin that is badly scarred can be planed down by the use of a rapidly revolving instrument to which a stiff wire brush is attached. This is known as dermabrasion.

Burns can also lead to scars of the skin. These scars are difficult to remove. They are very ugly looking. Even a small burn may produce a serious deformity of it occurs over a large joint, such as the knee. Deep burns often result in the formation of considerable scar tissue. Severe burns involve the deeper layers of the skin.

Badly scarred areas may need a graft of fresh skin over the area before they will heal completely.

Chicken pox can also sometimes leave scars on the face or other parts of the body.

Exposure to sun could lead to different skin reactions. Some people get scars and blemishes while others suffer from sunburn and tan.

Sometimes due to hormonal changes, or lack of nutrition or even due to stress, facial skin becomes patchy—light in certain areas and dark in others.




Sinusitis or accessory sinus suppuration is bacterial inflammation of the nasal and contiguous sinuses following acute rhinitis and contiguous sinuses following acute infection especially streptococci. Sometimes the infection from the second bicuspid and first two molar teeth whose roots are near to the antral floor. Sinusitis is an important etiological factor in the causation of many diseases of the lower respiratory tract.

Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses often follows the common cold, influenza, and other general infections. Germs that would normally be eliminated from the body may sometimes find their way into these little sinuses or chambers on each side of the nasal passages. Trouble may be due to inadequate drainage resulting from a deviated septum, or perhaps to the presence of polyps. Any chronic infection within the nose may lead to sinuses.

Acute Sinusitis is characterized by moderate degree of fever and local pain. The latter depends on the site affected: if frontal sinus, forehead; antrum, on one cheek: sphenoidal sinus, deep-seated headache. Headache is more marked in the afternoon.

Exposure to marked changes in temperature and humidity may also result in generalized inflammation within the nose, and this may extend into the sinuses. Dental abscesses may find their way into the maxillary sinuses, which are located on each side of the nose just above the jaw.

There is a purulent nasal discharge and in some cases, epistaxis. A progressive ill health continues. The patient usually complains of headache, postnatal discharge, pain and perhaps a low-grade fever, lack of appetite, loss of smell and even toothache. The trouble usually begins in one sinus and unless checked it may soon spread to other areas. Most cases clear up rapidly under good treatment, but some go on to the chronic stage. Sinus headaches are usually felt in the forehead and behind the eyes, or in the face just below the eyes. Many patients think they are having frequent colds, when in reality the trouble is due to recurrent sinus infection.

The infection may extend to the eyes, ears, throat and tracheo- bronchial tree occasionally intracranial complications as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis and brain abscess may appear.

In severe cases of sinusitis, the inside of the nose appears boggy and red and may be covered with a thin layer of pus. X-rays of the sinuses may show the presence of fluid or even polyps growing inside the involved sinus. The inflammation may also cause a severe infection of the middle ear, as well as bronchopneumonia, asthmatic attacks and even an abscess of the brain in rare cases.

Chronic sinus infection may not cause any definite symptoms except during exacerbations. This is frequently associated with many chronic respiratory infections.



Skin allergies

Clear skin is free from germs. But an irritated skin is a cause of trouble. Chafing of the skin is more likely to occur where two moist areas meet, such as in the groins or buttocks, or under the arms. Skin reactions are more common today due to many new fabrics in use. Babies often develop skin rashes because of irritation from the coloring materials in these fabrics.

Allergies are abnormal or hypersensitive responses of the Immune System to relatively harmless environmental antigens (substance which causes the allergy).

Diaper rash usually arises from some chemical irritation due to certain germs present in the baby’s stool. These germs break down the urea into ammonia, which irritates the skin.

Allergic conditions, such as Hay fever and sinusitis are also greatly aggravated by the presence of the germs within the tissues of the nose and throat. The most common allergens are grass and tree pollens, mold spores, dust mites, and animal dander. Eating certain foods and food additives and being stung by insects can trigger allergic reactions in sensitive people. Such common disorders as eczema, hives, hay fever and asthma are often attributed to allergic reactions.

The most common cause of the skin allergies is impairment in the immune sysytem, which increases the risk of allergic reactions. This occurs due to stress on the immune system due to excess of the toxins.

Other causes of the skin allergies are the nutritional deficiencies, imbalanced diet, chemicals in the food chain due to preservatives and chronic intestinal yeast overgrowth.

Researchers have found that digestion also plays some role in the allergies. These are not just caused by the food. Proper digestion helps to remove toxins from our body. When digestion is disturbed, large amount of toxins get accumulated in the body and our body becomes over loaded with the toxins. This is what leads to allergies.

Itching is an unpleasant sensation, which we try to relieve by scratching. A certain amount of mild itching is normal for every one. Only if it is persistent and troublesome it becomes serious. Persistent scratching may produce swellings in the skin with deep scratch marks and small ulcers into which germs have found their way, causing much more trouble.




Many thousands of people today are heavy smokers, not by choice, but due to the circumstances for which they have found no way of escape. They are caught in the grip of a habit developed during their teen-age years when so many young people think it is ‘smart ‘ to smoke.

The strange thing is that most of these people never wanted to smoke in the first place. There was only doing what they thought everyone else was doing at the time. Yet there is another odd thing. Smoking in not a normal habit. A person has to learn to smoke.

Smoking is by and large, an acquired habit. People start smoking because they think it is fashionable to do so or because their friends and companions are able to persuade them to start smoking. Some smokers feel that they look more attractive to the opposite sex when they are smoking. Others hold that a social gathering becomes more intimate if people are smoking. In reality all this is a product of smokers imagination. Because he wants to justify his habit, he invents enough reasons for it.

According to the U.S. Health Authorities smoking is “the largest preventable cause of death in America.” Millions of deaths are caused every year around the world by the smoking of cigarettes, pipes and cigars. Smoking causes coronary heart disease, lung cancer and skin cancer.

Every cigarette a person smoke leaves him a little weaker and less able to carry on. Then why don’t they stop? Because they are addicted to nicotine, a powerful drug that is present in the tobacco leaves. Some people seem to have little difficulty in giving up the habit, but most people have a real struggle. The majority continues to smoke because they get a temporary lift from the tobacco. However, this is always followed by a letdown, which then calls for another smoke.

Those who smoke pipes and cigars run the risk of developing lip and mouth cancer. The social impact of smoking is no less evil than its effect on the heart and the lungs. By way of personal hygiene, the smoker is at a disadvantage. His fingers turn yellow. His teeth and gums are stained. No mouthwash is enough to freshen his mouth.




Snoring Definition
Snoring is a common act of breathing through the open mouth in such a way as to cause a vibration of the uvula and soft palate. More then one-third of adults snore at least a few nights each week. The most commonly occurs during sleep, or immediately after death. The noisy sounds of snoring occur when there is an obstruction or blockages in the breathing passage. There are many kinds of blockages.

Home Remedies for Snoring



A sprain is an injury in which the tissues around the injured joint have been torn. This produces pain and swelling, and often some discoloration under the skin. A sprain is not a fracture, but it can be very painful.

A sprained back is the result of a bending or overexertion of a joint beyond its normal range of motion. Any unexpected twisting of the body, such as in a car accident, may cause a badly sprained back. But merely bending over to pick up one’s shoes may also produce a sudden sprain in the back. During the next hour or two the pain becomes worse and the adjacent muscles go into spasm.

Sprains are different from strains. Sprains affect ligaments (or joints). Strains occur when a muscle is stretched or partially torn. If a person ahs a strain, he can tell about it, because it won't get swollen or black and blue like a sprain. Healing of the strain is faster if the area around the injured muscle is heated slightly

Some of the common causes of the sprains are running or walking on uneven ground, wearing high-heeled shoes, overstretching of a ligament, during a fall, lifting heavy weights and accidents.

The ankle is the most common site of strains, but other joints can be strained as well such as shoulders, elbows, wrists, or knees. The symptoms are pain and swelling. Severe strains may cause discoloration, redness or bruising. A sprain involves the ligaments that attach bone to bone. The ligament may be stretched or torn, and torn ligaments can be very painful.




MALE STERLITY, or failure to fertilize female egg cells, may be due to several causes. In some cases the trouble is due to an emotional factor, such as a mental block. It may be caused by an absence or atrophy of the testes, or perhaps by some obstruction in the male genital organs. Infections involving the genital organs may result in the production of unhealthy or even dead sperm cells. In such cases special tests may locate the seat of the trouble, which may be treated surgically.

FEMALE STERLITY, or failure to have children may arise from several different causes. Sometimes the trouble is due to the husband.

In a woman, sterility may be due to some congenital malformation that has existed from birth, such as an absence of the tubes, ovary or uterus. Such conditions are rare. Pelvic infections, involving the vagina or cervix, are a more common cause of sterility. Inflammation of the tubes may prevent the sperm from reaching the ovum.

Other conditions such as endometriosis and adhesions involving the genital organs may also interfere with pregnancy. Endometriosis causes fibrosis throughout the pelvis and this fibrosis sometimes so covers the ovaries that an ovum cannot be released into the abdominal cavity. Endometriosis also occludes the fallopian tubes either at the fimbriated ends or else where along their extent. Lack of a normal menstrual cycle may also be a factor.

In some cases, the real cause of sterility arises from emotional factors. Many women who have waited for years for a family of their own have adopted a baby and then found themselves pregnant a few months later. Still another cause of infertility is secretion of abnormal mucus by the uterine cervix. Abnormalities of the cervix itself, such as low-grade infection or inflammation, or abnormal hormonal stimulation of the cervix can lead to a viscous mucus plug that will prevent fertilization.

It has been known that the administration of either estrogen or progesterone, if given in appropriate quantity during the first half of the monthly female cycle, can inhibit ovulation. The reason for this is that appropriate administration of either of these hormones can prevent the preovulatory surge of LH secretion by the pituitary gland, which is essential in causing ovulation.

The most common cause of female sterility is failure to ovulate. This can result from hypo secretion of gonadotropic hormones; in such cases the intensity of the hormonal stimuli is not sufficient to cause ovulation. For example, thick capsules occasionally exist on the outside of the ovaries that make ovulation difficult.




The storms and stresses of life will either drive us forward or back, depending on how we direct our course. It is easy to blame others when the real problems usually lie within us. Our own personal response means far more than all the influences that surround us. Many of our failures are due to childish reactions that we have carried over into adult life. This is a common cause of mental and physical illness.

Most of our mental illnesses arise because the individual cannot cope with the stress and strain of life. It is the parent’s responsibility to help each child to grow up into full maturity and peace of mind.

Main causes for stress are:
< Financial situation can cause stress at any time of the year. Overspending during the holidays on gifts, travel, food and entertainment can increase stress.

Relationships can cause tension, conflict or stress at any time. Family misunderstandings and conflict can increase the stress. A conflict mainly arises with so increased needs and interests to accommodate.

Loss of sleep often results in fatigue and quickly impairs a person’s normal judgment. The higher centers of the brain are the first to show the effects of overwork and anxiety. Such a person may become depressed, losing all interest in life and burdened with a sense of impending death

Stress may he caused by a variety of factors. External factors include loud noises, blinding light, extreme heat or cold, X-rays and other forms of radiation, drugs, chemicals, bacterial and various toxic substance, pain, and inadequate nutrition

The factors from within the body include hate, envy, fear, or Jealousy



Stretch Marks

Stretch Marks are slightly depressed linear marks with varying length and breadth found in pregnancy. They are predominantly found in the abdominal wall below the umbilicus, sometimes over the thighs and the breasts.

Initially these are pinkish but after the delivery, the scar tissue contract and obliterates the capillaries and they become glistening white in appearance.

Apart from the mechanical stretching of the skin, increase in aldosterone production during pregnancy is the responsible factors.

Besides pregnancy some other causes of stretch marks are: Rapidly gaining weight (Bulking cycle), Puberty, Obesity, Heredity, Skin Type, Stress, Poor Diet and Sudden Environmental Change

Every woman in her life develops stretch marks. Some women have a family disposition to develop stretch marks whereas others do not develop them at all. Once the stretch marks develop they will stay with you forever; but with time they will be less noticeable.

Stretch marks are often think to be scars but they are different from scars. They are not scars because they are not comprised of fibrotic tissue. Instead, stretch marks represent a flattened, thin epidermis overlying gaps in the dermis left by stretched or torn elastin fibers.




Sunburn is the result of over exposure to the sun's ultra-violet ( UV ) rays. There are two types of ultra-violet rays, ultra-violet A ( UVA ) and ultra-violet B ( UVB ). Both are very strong and harmful to the skin. UVB rays attack the skin's upper layers whereas the UVA are rays that attack the inner layers.

The severity of the sunburn depends upon the amount of exposure from the individual, the geographical location, the time, and the atmospheric conditions. Sunburns, like any other burn, are classified as first degree, second degree and third degree. Normally, sunburns are first-degree burns.

The symptoms of a first-degree burn are pain, heat, redness and tender to the touch in the skin affected. These symptoms can appear from 1 to 24 hours after exposure to the sun.

The symptoms of a second-degree burn are extreme reddening, swelling; pain and even blisters can appear. The burn reaches the deeper layers of the skin where it damages the small blood vessels and elastic fibers in the skin, and later there is wrinkling of the skin. In most severe cases, chills, fever, nausea, and/or delirium may accompany the burn. Sunburn such as this, is extremely painful and for children is terribly dangerous.

Today the effect of sun exposure is common because of the decline in the earth's ozone layer. The ozone's layer protects us from harmful a UV ray, which damages our skin, and causes many diseases like skin cancer.

Spending too much time in the sun without adequate protection is harmful. Your chances of developing a sunburn are greatest between 10 AM and 3 PM when the sun's rays are strongest at all latitudes. The risk drops considerably before and after those times.

The effects of sunburn are minimum on a cloudy or overcast day when the sun is not shining brightly. However, on these foggy, cloudy, or slightly overcast days, sunburn can be induced when sunlight is scattered by atmospheric conditions.



Teeth Whitening

Smile is one of the first things people notice about you. Yellow or brown teeth are not the best first impression you want to make. Teeth can become discolored for a number of reasons, the most common being tobacco, coffee, tea, berries, and the natural accumulation of tartar over time.

Other reasons for discoloration of teeth may be internal reasons such as by aging, injury, excessive fluoride, and by certain illnesses and medicines. Discoloration is natural over time.

Tooth whitening can have fantastic affects on your appearance, as well as giving your self-esteem a big boost. Tooth whitening is safe, convenient, and can change the overall appearance of your smile in a matter of hours.

In the adult there are thirty-two permanent teeth. The first of these, which grow in below, begin to come through when a child is six or seven years old. These permanent teeth usually replace the deciduous teeth. By the time a person is twenty-five he should have all his teeth. By the time a person is twenty-five he should have all his teeth. The condition of his teeth will largely depend on his diet, and on the kind of care he has given the teeth during his growing years.

Some teeth seem to be defective from the start owing to hereditary factors.
A clean mouth contributes toward an attractive personality and a happy disposition. An unsanitary mouth usually arises from years of neglect.




Thyroid gland is a small mass of tissue present on either side of the trachea or windpipe. It is a very important structure that helps in the metabolism of the body.

When the basal metabolism is below normal, a person tends to be slow in his movements. He feels cold more and may have marked dryness of the skin, along with constipation and a tendency to put on weight. His hair is dry, thin, and coarse and the skin appears dry, scaly and thickened. There may be puffiness in the face, especially around the eyes. The tongue is usually large, the pulse is slow and regular, and the patient often complains of vague pains in the back and stiffness in the joints.

Hypothyroidism: It is a condition that results from the insufficient amount of thyroid hormone in the body. The trouble may also develop from pituitary deficiency, but is more likely due to some inborn error of the thyroid gland. The change usually comes gradually and involves the patient’s personality and also his ability to think.

Hypothyroidism is seen in both sexes, but is more common in women. Most of these are overweight and may complain of heavy flow during menstruation. The heart is often enlarged, and there is high level of cholesterol in the blood stream.

Hyperthyroidism : It is also known as Grave’s disease or thyrotoxicosis. It is a serious condition of the body, arising from too much activity of the thyroid gland. The increased amounts of thyroid hormone produced by the overactive gland will then raise the metabolic rate of the body.

It is mainly present in the age group of 20 –30 years of age. It is more frequent in males but is more dangerous in females. Violent emotions, fear, anger and grief are thought to be exciting causes. Prolonged lactation, or diarrhea, excessive mental work is predisposing causes. Other important causes may include heredity, traumatism, physical strain, mental overwork, toxemias, and dysfunction of the internal glands especially the adrenals.

As a result of the tachycardia myocardial degeneration may result. The orbital adipose is increased; also an increase of blood and lymph in the orbit. The enlargement of thyroid is due to marked dilatation of its blood vessels, especially the arteries.

“A peculiar disease combining three characteristic conditions namely: protrusion of the eyeballs, enlargement of the thyroid gland and functional disturbances of the heart. The neurotic symptoms are the early to appear. The tremors, which are involuntary and fine, may number from 425 to 500 per minute.

Palpitation of the heart, which accompanies the tachycardia, is at first light but increases rapidly, usually brought on and always aggravated by mental excitement. The heart beat runs from 100 to 160. Symptoms of neurasthenia may be present. Great excitability, mental depression and melancholia are frequent symptoms.

Exophatalamus varies in different patients. Immobility of the upper lid, a white line is noticeable above and below the cornea and marked dryness of the membrane is the important eye symptoms. Abnormalities of the optic nerve are rare. Ulcers of the cornea may also occasionally occur. The arteries of the retina may pulsate with the heartbeat.

The skin symptoms are: slight rise of temperature, sometimes profuse sweating, urticaria, pruritis, in advanced cases edema, especially of the ankles, frequent flushing of the face, epistaxis, vomiting and purging.

A patient with this disease is usually nervous, weak, sensitive to heat, sweats frequently, is overactive and often underweight, inspite of an increased appetite. The patient eats healthy but continues to lose weight because of the higher rate of metabolism in the body.




A toothache is any pain or soreness within or around a tooth, indicating inflammation and possible infection. Generally a toothache happens if tooth decay penetrated the pulp chamber or is very close to it, which contains the nerves and tiny blood vessels.

An improper diet favors the development of tooth disease and other maladies of the mouth. Food particles lodged in the area may provide a suitable place for the growth of bacteria, and these in turn produce a local acid reaction which then attacks the surface of the tooth.

Once the enamel has been eroded away the body of the tooth is more easily damaged. Eventually inflammation develops in the pulp chamber of the tooth, resulting in the pain of tooth. At first the tooth may be merely sensitive to hot and cold substances in the mouth, or perhaps to pressure from biting. Later, as an abscess forms at the base of the tooth, the pain becomes more severe. It may be sharp, throbbing, shooting, or constant.

Some of the important causes of toothache are:




As the blood returns to the heart it passes through special thin walled vessels called veins. Unlike the tough strong arteries, these vessels are easily distended. One can demonstrate by pressing the finger on a vein on the back of hand and watching it swell as the blood builds up behind it. Blood flowing from the head and upper chest flows downward toward the heart. On the other hand, blood coming from the lower extremities must flow upward. To make this possible nature has provided valves in the veins so that the blood can flow only toward the heart, never in the other direction.

In human beings there are two sets of veins. The deeper veins are located within the muscles where they are given good support. But the veins on the surface just under the skin have little support and are easily damaged. These surface veins are often subject to inflammation or phlebitis.

In some people the veins in the legs are weak and may swell easily. Varicose veins, seems to run in families. Anything that increases the pressure in the pelvis or abdomen may slow the flow of blood back to the heart from the lower extremities. One frequent cause of varicose veins is pregnancy; other is obesity. Anything that increases the pressure within the veins of the legs and thighs may weaken or break down the little valves, so that the veins become enlarged and the blood does not finds its way back to the heart as it should.

Varicose veins are ugly, and sometimes they are dangerous. A blood clot forming within a greatly dilated vein may break off and travel to the heart and lungs. This serious condition, known as pulmonary embolism, may actually cause death. Serious hemorrhage may occur if a large varicose vein is torn open or cut. Some people have actually bleed to death, not knowing what to do in such emergency. Steady pressure over the bleeding point will usually control the bleeding. But one should avoid such a danger by having the veins properly treated.

People with varicose veins first note swelling along the course of the veins, followed by muscle cramps and a tired feeling in the legs behind the knees. In some cases the skin over the lower part of the leg may break down, forming a large, ugly ulcer, which is often painful, especially when thrombophlebitis develops in the leg.

To avoid further trouble one should not wear any elastic bands around the legs. Varicose ulcers need special care. The patient should rest in bed, with the legs elevated so that the heel is higher than the knee. Keeping the leg elevated will reduce the swelling by helping the blood return to the heart.




Warts are hard, dry growths in the skin. They come and go without any cause. Usually they are perfectly harmless. But any sudden change in the appearance of wart should be noted immediately. Such changes sometimes may be due to presence of cancers.

Warts come in various shapes and sizes, and usually appear as rough elevations in the skin. They occur most frequently on the fingers, elbows, knees, face and scalp. They may also be seen in different forms on the soles of the feet, and in the genital and rectal areas. Warts are apparently due to a virus infection of the skin.

Although most warts are fairly easy to remove, they often tend to return either at the same site or somewhere near by.

Those that appear on the soles of the feet are called plantar warts. They are very painful and the sufferer is not able to walk properly. Plantar warts on the soles are usually contracted in swimming pools. Constitutional factors, however, appear to be at the root of the trouble. These factors lead to some defects in the proper development of the skin surface in certain areas.




Many diseases may cause general weakness. Anemia is the main cause of general weakness.

The patient complains of weakness, easy fatigue, and irritability. Other symptoms may include heartburn, flatulence, abdominal pains, soreness in the mouth, numbness and tingling in the extremities and palpitation of the heart.

The skin and mucous membranes are pale, the nails are brittle, and there are fissures or sores at the corners of the mouth.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder affecting mainly girls or women, although boys or men can also suffer from it. It usually starts in the teenage years. On account of any mental depression or a fanciful idea (especially for reducing obesity), she takes less food than normal. The appetite gradually lessens.

Puberty, deaths in the family and other life stresses are all believed to be the main causes of anorexia. Self-induced weight loss includes fasting, low food intake, excessive exercise, diuretic medicines (medicines that make you urinate more) laxatives, diet pills or vomiting.

All the above causes can produce weakness.




Wrinkles appear on the face in the old age. It is natural. This is produced due to ageing. Taking care of the skin in the young age can prevent premature ageing.

Wrinkles appear in the skin when it becomes thin and looses its elasticity. The appearance of some wrinkles is due to aging, and is the most common skin problem for women. One of the first signs of wrinkles normally appears around the eye. As the time passes it appears on the cheeks and lips.

There are many factors that can contribute in the development of wrinkles some of which are: diet and nutrition, muscle tone, pollution, habitual facial expressions, chemicals, stress, improper skin care, and lifestyle habits such as smoking.

The most important factor is exposure to the sun, which is the worst enemy of the skin, because it dries the skin and leads to the generation of free radicals that can damage skin cells. Researches show that 90% of what we think, as signs of age are actually signs of overexposure to sunlight. Furthermore, approximately 70% of sun damage comes from everyday activities, as driving and walking to and from your car.

The ultraviolet- A rays that cause this enormous damage are present all day long in all seasons. These ultraviolet- A rays wear away the elasticity of the skin, causing wrinkling.



White skin

Vitiligo or Leucoderma is an acquired depigmentation of the skin, which is extremely common with a worldwide prevalence. Both sexes are affected equally. Lecucoderma, also known as vitiligo, is a distressing skin condition. The word Lecucoderma means ‘ white skin’. There is a gradual loss of pigment melanin from the skin layers which results in white patches. These patches look ugly, especially in persons with dark complexions. Lecucoderma can occur at any age in either sex in normal skin.

Leucoderma / Vitiligo conditions has considerable psycho-social importance. Genetic redisposition is present. No age is exempt. The disease frequently startsin children and young adults. Leucoderma is a fairly common disorder and it affects one per cent or more of the world’s population. The incidence is a little higher in India. Lecucoderma is, however, more common in women than men. The most affected areas are the hands, the neck, the back and the wrist in that order.

Leucoderma, also known as vitiligo, is a distressing skin condition. The word literally means white skin. There is a gradual loss of pigment melanin from the skin layer which results in white patches. These patches look ugly, especially in persons with a dark complexion.

The attraction in colour is the reason for huge sales of fairness creams. But the whiteness offered by skin disease - leucoderma - is often depressing for all the sufferers. As such it is hardly a disease of medical significance but more of a social stigma attached to it because of cosmetic reasons. The condition does not cause any organic harm. It , however, brings about great psychological tension to the patient who is more embarassed than the victim of any pain or discomfort. Patches can be caused because of a number of reasons, the most common among them being worms and calcium deficiency. These patches gradually increase in size & cause lot of psychological stress in the patient. It is an auto-immune condition and may have a genetic predisposition.

This disease is caused neither by any germs, nor is it due to bad blood. It is considered to be neither infectious nor contagious. It is present in the basal layer of the epidermis and the first layer of the dermis, i.e. melanin is present in two layers. The disorder can occur at any age in either sex in normal skin. It is, however, more common in women than men. The most affected areas are the hands, the neck, the back and the wrist in that order. Leucoderma does not cause any health problems - it is not contagious or dangerous at all. It is only a cosmetic problem. Moreover, it is just as important to remember that every white patch is not leucoderma. Patches can be caused because of a number of reasons, the most common among them being worms and calcium deficiency. In majority of the cases, medical therapy only achieves stabilization of the vitiligo patch but fails to cause repigmentation. If a patient of leucoderma is found to be suffering from digestive disorders, they should be treated first. When leucoderma occurs without any preceding disease it is called vitiligo . Sometimes it follows burns and injuries.

Causes of Leucoderma
The comman causes of Leucoderma include the following:

Symptoms of Leucoderma
Some sign and symptoms related to Leucoderma are as follows:
Treatment of Leucoderma
Here is list of the methods for treating Leucoderma: